author = "Wei, Dandan and Fuentes, Jose D. and Gerken, Tobias and Chamecki, 
                         Marcelo and Trowbridge, Amy M. and Stoy, Paul C. and Katul, 
                         Gabriel G. and Fisch, Gilberto and Acevedo, Ot{\'a}vio and Manzi, 
                         Antonio Ocimar and Von Randow, Celso and Santos, Rosa Maria 
                         Nascimento dos",
          affiliation = "{The Pennsylvania State University} and {The Pennsylvania State 
                         University} and {The Pennsylvania State University} and 
                         {University of California} and {Montana State University} and 
                         {Montana State University} and {Duke University} and {Instituto de 
                         Aeron{\'a}utica e Espa{\c{c}}o (IAE)} and {Universidade Federal 
                         de Santa Maria (UFSM)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEAM)}",
                title = "Environmental and biological controls on seasonal patterns of 
                         isoprene above a rain forest in central Amazonia",
              journal = "Agricultural and Forest Meteorology",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "256",
                pages = "391--406",
                month = "June",
             keywords = "Rainforest, Phenology, Isoprene, Oxidants, Chemistry, Hydroxyl.",
             abstract = "The Amazon rain forest is a major global isoprene source, but 
                         little is known about its seasonal ambient concentration patterns. 
                         To investigate the environmental and phenological controls over 
                         isoprene seasonality, we measured isoprene mixing ratios, 
                         concurrent meteorological data, and leaf area indices from April 
                         2014 to January 2015 above a rain forest in the central Amazon, 
                         Brazil. Daytime median isoprene mixing ratios varied throughout 
                         the year by a factor of two. The isoprene seasonal pattern was not 
                         solely driven by sunlight and temperature. Leaf age and quantity 
                         also contributed to the seasonal variations of isoprene 
                         concentrations, suggesting leaf phenology was a crucial variable 
                         needed to correctly estimate isoprene emissions. A 
                         zero-dimensional model incorporating the estimated emissions, 
                         atmospheric boundary layer dynamics, and air chemistry was used to 
                         assess the contributions of each process on the variability of 
                         isoprene. Surface deposition was an important sink mechanism and 
                         accounted for 78% of the nighttime loss of isoprene. Also, 
                         chemical reactions destroyed isoprene and during 6:00 to 18:00 h 
                         local time 56, 77, 69, and 69% of the emitted isoprene was 
                         chemically consumed in June, September, December, and January, 
                         respectively. Entrainment fluxes from the residual layer 
                         contributed 34% to the early-morning above-canopy isoprene mixing 
                         ratios. Sensitivity analysis showed that hydroxyl radical (HO) 
                         recycling and segregation of isoprene HO played relatively lesser 
                         roles (up to 16%) in regulating ambient isoprene levels. Nitric 
                         oxide (NO) levels dominated isoprene chemical reaction pathways 
                         associated with consumption and production of HO under low-NO and 
                         high volatile organic compound (VOC) conditions. While surface 
                         deposition and oxidative processes altered isoprene levels, the 
                         relative importance of these factors varied seasonally with leaf 
                         phenology playing a more important role.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.03.024",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.03.024",
                 issn = "0168-1923",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Wei_environmental.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"