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@PhDThesis{Oliveira:2018:OtMoMe,
               author = "Oliveira, Bruno Silva",
                title = "Otimiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o do modelo metric para estimativas de 
                         evapotranspira{\c{c}}{\~a}o no cerrado brasileiro",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2018",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2018-08-27",
             keywords = "Cerrado, evapotranspira{\c{c}}{\~a}o, balan{\c{c}}o de energia 
                         na superf{\'{\i}}cie, MODIS, GLDAS, cerrado, evapotranspiration, 
                         surface energy balance, MODIS, GLDAS.",
             abstract = "O bioma Cerrado tem sido foco da aten{\c{c}}{\~a}o mundial, 
                         devido {\`a} sua grande diversidade biol{\'o}gica e {\`a}s 
                         mudan{\c{c}}as de uso e cobertura da terra que sofre com a 
                         expans{\~a}o da agricultura. Essas mudan{\c{c}}as causam 
                         impactos no balan{\c{c}}o h{\'{\i}}drico e de energia e, 
                         consequentemente, na evapotranspira{\c{c}}{\~a}o (ET), 
                         contribuindo para as mudan{\c{c}}as clim{\'a}ticas local e 
                         global. Os modelos de ET com dados de sensoriamento remoto 
                         s{\~a}o atualmente a forma mais adequada para representar a 
                         din{\^a}mica espacial e temporal dessa vari{\'a}vel, no entanto 
                         sua aplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\'e} limitada pela disponibilidade de 
                         dados meteorol{\'o}gicos de superf{\'{\i}}cie. Neste estudo o 
                         modelo METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with 
                         Internalized Calibration) foi aplicado em quatro regi{\~o}es 
                         heterog{\^e}neas no Cerrado brasileiro, avaliando-se sua 
                         performance em estimar o balan{\c{c}}o de energia e a ET. As 
                         estimativas foram avaliadas por compara{\c{c}}{\~a}o com fluxos 
                         observados por sistemas eddy covariance instalados sobre 
                         {\'a}reas de cana-de-a{\c{c}}{\'u}car (s{\'{\i}}tio USR), 
                         Cerrado denso (s{\'{\i}}tio PDG) e Cerrado sensu-stricto 
                         (s{\'{\i}}tio RECOR). O submodelo de albedo da 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie foi ajustado utilizando simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         de irradi{\^a}ncia solar do modelo SMARTS2 e dados de radiometria 
                         coletados em campo. O METRIC foi aplicado inicialmente em sua 
                         forma padr{\~a}o, com imagens MODIS e dados meteorol{\'o}gicos 
                         observados nos s{\'{\i}}tios experimentais. No segundo momento, 
                         para tornar o modelo independente de dados meteorol{\'o}gicos de 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie, melhorar a resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial dos 
                         resultados e reduzir o tempo de processamento, as 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es foram realizadas aplicando-se somente dados 
                         MODIS e dados meteorol{\'o}gicos de rean{\'a}lise (GLDAS), 
                         desagrega{\c{c}}{\~a}o da banda termal do MOD11 (de 1km para 250 
                         metros) e automatiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o da sele{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         pixels {\^a}ncora para a calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o interna do 
                         modelo. O ajuste no submodelo de albedo levou a desvios entre 10- 
                         21% e m{\'a}ximo RMSE=0,03. O algoritmo de 
                         desagrega{\c{c}}{\~a}o da banda termal permitiu simular a 
                         temperatura da superf{\'{\i}}cie com R>0,68 e RMSE < 2,1C. O 
                         METRIC em sua forma padr{\~a}o obteve resultados consistentes 
                         para o saldo de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o (Rn) (R>0,94 e RMSE<75 W 
                         m-2), por{\'e}m subestimou esse fluxo em 8 e 9% na 
                         cana-de-a{\c{c}}{\'u}car e no Cerrado denso, respectivamente. O 
                         fluxo de calor latente (LE) foi estimado com precis{\~a}o nos 
                         s{\'{\i}}tios PDG e RECOR, por{\'e}m subestimado em 5% no 
                         s{\'{\i}}tio USR (R=0,94 e RMSE=42,88 W m-2). A ET real foi 
                         estimada com precis{\~a}o nos s{\'{\i}}tios USR e PDG, 
                         por{\'e}m foi superestimada em 14% no s{\'{\i}}tio RECOR 
                         (R=0,96 e RMSE=0,75 mm dia-1). O modelo ajustado e alimentado por 
                         dados meteorol{\'o}gicos do GLDAS obteve estimativas de Rn 
                         similares {\`a}s da primeira aplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o, por{\'e}m o 
                         esse fluxo foi superestimado em 7% nos s{\'{\i}}tios USR e PDG 
                         (R>0,93 e RMSE<80 W m-2). Com essa configura{\c{c}}{\~a}o o 
                         modelo superestimou a ET em 25% e 26% na 
                         cana-de-a{\c{c}}{\'u}car e no Cerrado sensu-stricto, 
                         respectivamente. As m{\'e}dias zonais extra{\'{\i}}das para 
                         diferentes classes de cobertura da terra do mapa do TerraClass 
                         Cerrado mostraram que entre as quatro {\'a}reas de estudo 
                         avaliadas os fluxos de energia e a ET s{\~a}o similares quanto 
                         {\`a} magnitude e varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o sazonal, mostrando-se 
                         fortemente influenciados pela energia dispon{\'{\i}}vel, 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, umidade no solo e NDVI. ABSTRACT: The 
                         Brazilian Cerrado has been the focus of world attention due to its 
                         great biological diversity and land cover/land use changes, caused 
                         by the expansion of agricultural activities. These changes cause 
                         impacts on water and energy balance, and, consequently, on 
                         evapotranspiration (ET), contributing to local and global climate 
                         change. The ET models that use remote sensing data as inputs are 
                         currently considered the best method to represent the spatial and 
                         temporal dynamic of this variable, however, its application is 
                         limited by the availability of surface meteorological data. In 
                         this study we evaluated the potential of METRIC (Mapping 
                         EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized 
                         Calibration) model to estimate the energy balance fluxes and ET 
                         over four heterogeneous Cerrado regions. The estimates were 
                         evaluated by comparing them to flux tower data collected over 
                         sugarcane (USR site), woody cerrado (PDG site) and stricto-sensu 
                         cerrado (RECOR site) areas. The broadband albedo submodel was 
                         adjusted by applying solar radiation simulations with the SMARTS2 
                         model and radiometry data collected during fieldworks. METRIC was 
                         initially applied in its standard form, with MODIS images and 
                         meteorological data observed at the experimental sites. In the 
                         second phase, in order to the model become independent of surface 
                         meteorological data, to improve the spatial resolution of the 
                         outputs, and to reduce processing time, the simulations were 
                         performed by applying only MODIS and reanalysis (GLDAS) data; 
                         spatial sharpening of MOD11 thermal band (1km to 250 meters) and 
                         automation of anchor pixels selection for the internal 
                         calibration. The surface albedo model adjustment led to deviations 
                         between 10-21% and maximum RMSE=0.03. The global algorithm for 
                         thermal disaggregation allowed to simulate the land surface 
                         temperature with R>0.68 and RMSE<2.1C. METRIC in its standard 
                         form presented consistent results for net radiation (Rn)(R>0.94 
                         and RMSE<75 W m- 2), however it underestimated this flux by 8 and 
                         9% in sugarcane and woody cerrado, respectively. Latent heat flux 
                         (LE) was accurately estimated at PDG and RECOR sites but 
                         underestimated by 5% at USR site (R=0.94 and RMSE=42.88 W m-2). 
                         METRICderived ET estimates showed agreement with ground data at 
                         USR and PDG sites, but at RECOR site ET was overestimated by 14% 
                         (R=0.96 and RMSE=0.75 mm day-1). METRIC model adjusted and fed by 
                         GLDAS simulated obtained Rn results close to those obtained in the 
                         first simulation but overestimated this flux by 7% at USR and PDG 
                         sites (R>0.93 and RMSE<80 W m-2). With this configuration, the 
                         model overestimated ET by 25% and 26% in sugarcane and 
                         stricto-sensu savanna, respectively. The zonal means extracted for 
                         different land cover types (TerraClass Cerrado map) showed that, 
                         among the four study areas evaluated, the surface energy fluxes 
                         and ET are similar in magnitude and seasonal variation, with 
                         direct dependence on available energy, precipitation, soil 
                         moisture and NDVI.",
            committee = "Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir (presidente) and Moraes, Elisabete Caria 
                         (orientadora) and Sanches, Ieda Del'Arco and Zeri, Luis Marcelo de 
                         Mattos and Oliveira, Gabriel de",
         englishtitle = "Optimization of metric model for evapotranspiration estimates in 
                         the brazilian cerrado",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "188",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3RKS7A2",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3RKS7A2",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"
}


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