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@MastersThesis{Eidt:2018:InAnEx,
               author = "Eidt, Renata Tatsch",
                title = "Influ{\^e}ncias de anomalias extratropicais de TSM dos oceanos 
                         Pac{\'{\i}}fico Sul e Atl{\^a}ntico Sul na 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o das regi{\~o}es Sul e Centro-Oeste do 
                         Brasil",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2018",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2018-08-29",
             keywords = "anomalias de TSM, extremos de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         Am{\'e}rica do Sul, Pac{\'{\i}}fico Sul, Atl{\^a}ntico Sul, 
                         SST anomalies, precipitation extremes, South America, South 
                         Pacific, South Atlantic.",
             abstract = "Condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es de tempo e clima afetam diferentes setores, 
                         dentre eles a agricultura, e a sua previsibilidade {\'e} 
                         extremamente importante para garantia de um manejo adequado do 
                         processo agr{\'{\i}}cola. A variabilidade de 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\'e} importante para a 
                         produ{\c{c}}{\~a}o agr{\'{\i}}cola, e a disponibilidade de 
                         chuvas {\'e} uma resposta a padr{\~o}es oce{\^a}nicos e 
                         atmosf{\'e}ricos. Uma vari{\'a}vel oce{\^a}nica importante 
                         {\'e} a temperatura da superf{\'{\i}}cie do mar (TSM). No 
                         entanto, apesar do enfoque em estudos anteriores para oceanos 
                         tropicais, as regi{\~o}es extratropicais tamb{\'e}m s{\~a}o 
                         importantes para a modula{\c{c}}{\~a}o do clima, e ainda existem 
                         poucos trabalhos direcionados para essas regi{\~o}es. O objetivo 
                         desta disserta{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\'e} identificar os padr{\~o}es 
                         de anomalias de TSM nas regi{\~o}es extratropicais dos oceanos 
                         Pac{\'{\i}}fico Sul e Atl{\^a}ntico Sul que podem influenciar a 
                         circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o atmosf{\'e}rica, afetando a 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o em {\'a}reas agr{\'{\i}}colas do 
                         Brasil. O estudo foi feito utilizando-se uma escala de tempo 
                         mensal no per{\'{\i}}odo de 1979 a 2010, com enfoque para os 
                         meses mais relevantes para a agricultura. An{\'a}lises de 
                         correla{\c{c}}{\~a}o e Decomposi{\c{c}}{\~a}o em Valores 
                         Singulares (SVD) de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o na Am{\'e}rica do 
                         Sul e TSM nos dois oceanos permitiram a identifica{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         de regi{\~o}es oce{\^a}nicas relacionadas. Extremos secos e 
                         chuvosos no Sul e Centro-Oeste do Brasil foram identificados 
                         atrav{\'e}s do {\'{\I}}ndice de Precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         Normalizado (SPI) para an{\'a}lise de compostos. Os resultados 
                         mostraram que a precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o no Sul do Brasil 
                         est{\'a} associada a um dipolo de anomalias de TSM no Oceano 
                         Pac{\'{\i}}fico Sul. Anomalias positivas (negativas) de TSM no 
                         sudeste e negativas (positivas) no noroeste deste oceano foram 
                         observadas quando h{\'a} aumento (redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o) de chuvas 
                         no Sul do Brasil, principalmente no per{\'{\i}}odo de Outubro a 
                         Dezembro. Casos chuvosos (secos) nessa regi{\~a}o tamb{\'e}m 
                         apresentaram rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o com um dipolo de TSM no 
                         Atl{\^a}ntico Sudoeste, quando este apresentou anomalias 
                         positivas (negativas) no norte e negativas (positivas) no sul. A 
                         {\'a}rea na regi{\~a}o Centro-Oeste apresentou um padr{\~a}o 
                         misto de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, com mesmo sinal de anomalias da 
                         regi{\~a}o Sul na parte sul e anomalias opostas na parte norte da 
                         {\'a}rea. Assim, as an{\'a}lises de correla{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         n{\~a}o apresentaram um padr{\~a}o bem definido. Por{\'e}m, nos 
                         compostos, o padr{\~a}o de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o apresenta 
                         anomalias opostas {\`a} regi{\~a}o Sul, e uma influ{\^e}ncia 
                         maior do Oceano Atl{\^a}ntico e do fluxo de umidade. A partir dos 
                         centros de dipolo identificados no Pac{\'{\i}}fico Sul e 
                         Atl{\^a}ntico Sul, foram criados {\'{\i}}ndices baseados na 
                         diferen{\c{c}}a de anomalia de TSM entre eles com o intuito de 
                         contribuir para identifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o de extremos de 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o nas regi{\~o}es de estudo. As anomalias 
                         de TSM no Oceano Pac{\'{\i}}fico Sul estiveram associadas a 
                         mudan{\c{c}}as na dire{\c{c}}{\~a}o das correntes 
                         oce{\^a}nicas, as quais sofrem a{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o atmosf{\'e}rica. An{\'a}lises de 
                         vari{\'a}veis atmosf{\'e}ricas e oce{\^a}nicas indicaram a 
                         intera{\c{c}}{\~a}o oceano-atmosfera com influ{\^e}ncia nos 
                         centros de a{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos trens de onda na atmosfera que 
                         afetam a Am{\'e}rica do Sul. ABSTRACT: Weather and climate 
                         conditions affect different sectors, including agriculture, and 
                         their predictability is extremely important for management. 
                         Precipitation is important for agriculture production, and 
                         rainfall variability depends on oceanic and atmospheric patterns. 
                         Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important oceanic variable. 
                         However, even though previous studies have focused on tropical 
                         oceans to analyze the role of oceans on the atmosphere, 
                         extratropical regions are also important for climate modulation, 
                         and its importance is still not completely understood. The 
                         objective of this study is to identify SST anomalies patterns in 
                         extratropical South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans that may 
                         influence atmospheric circulation, affecting precipitation in 
                         agricultural areas in Brazil. The study was based on a monthly 
                         timescale from 1979 to 2010, focusing on important months for 
                         agriculture. Correlation and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) 
                         analysis using precipitation in South America and SST in both 
                         oceans allowed the identification of related oceanic regions. 
                         Extreme dry and wet events in the south and center of Brazil were 
                         identified using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for a 
                         composites analysis. Results show that precipitation in southern 
                         Brazil is associated with a dipole of SST anomalies in South 
                         Pacific Ocean, as well as in South Atlantic Ocean, with a greater 
                         influence of the former. In the Pacific Ocean, positive (negative) 
                         SST anomalies in the southeast and negative (positive) SST 
                         anomalies in the northwest were observed to increase (decrease) 
                         rainfall over southern Brazil, mainly from October to December. 
                         Wet (dry) events in this region also showed relations to a SST 
                         dipole in Southwestern Atlantic, when there were positive 
                         (negative) anomalies in the north and negative (positive) 
                         anomalies in the south. The central region had a mixed 
                         precipitation pattern, with the same signal of the southern region 
                         in the south and opposite anomalies in the north. Therefore, there 
                         was not a well defined configuration in the correlation analysis. 
                         However, in the composites, the precipitation pattern shows 
                         anomalies opposed to the southern region, and a stronger influence 
                         from the Atlantic Ocean and moisture flux. Based on the centers of 
                         dipoles identified for South Pacific and South Atlantic, indices 
                         calculated by the difference between SST anomalies were developed. 
                         These indices may contribute to identify precipitation extremes in 
                         the study areas. SST anomalies in South Pacific were associated 
                         with changes in the direction of ocean currents, which are 
                         affected by the atmospheric circulation. Analysis of atmospheric 
                         and ocean variables indicated oceanatmosphere interaction with 
                         influence on the centers of action of wave trains in the 
                         atmosphere that affect South America.",
            committee = "Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi (presidente) and Cavalcanti, Iracema Fonseca 
                         de Albuquerque (orientadora) and Ambrizzi, T{\'e}rcio",
         englishtitle = "Influence of extratropial SST anomalies in South Pacific and South 
                         Atlantic Oceans on precipitation over southern and central 
                         Brazil",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "163",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3RLBLHL",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3RLBLHL",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"
}


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