author = "Kayano, Mary Toshie and Andreoli, Rita Val{\'e}ria and Garcia, 
                         S{\^a}mia Regina and Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEAM)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal de S{\~a}o Paulo (UNIFESP)} and {Universidade do Estado 
                         do Amazonas (UEAM)}",
                title = "How the two nodes of the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature 
                         dipole relate the climate of the surrounding regions during 
                         austral autumn",
              journal = "International Journal of Climatology",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "38",
               number = "10",
                pages = "3927--3941",
                month = "Aug.",
             keywords = "climatology, climate variability, cross-equatorial mode, 
                         precipitation, South America, tropical Atlantic.",
             abstract = "The relations of both nodes of the tropical Atlantic (TA) 
                         cross-equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) gradient (GRAD) 
                         mode to the climate of northeast Brazil (NEB) during the 1901-2012 
                         period are examined separately. The GRAD mode consists of a SST 
                         anomalous pattern anti-symmetric about the equator with centres in 
                         the region of the northeasterly and southwesterly trade winds. The 
                         positive GRAD (PGRAD) (negative GRAD [NGRAD]) modes defined by 
                         their northern or southern nodes are considered separately, as 
                         well as, if they are preceded or not by an El Nino (EN) (a La 
                         Nina, LN). The PGRAD mode defined by the northern (southern) node 
                         and preceded by an EN is indicated by PGRAD_TNA_EN (PGRAD_TSA_EN), 
                         and that not preceded by an EN is indicated by PGRAD_TNA 
                         (PGRAD_TSA). The corresponding NGRAD modes are indicated by 
                         NGRAD_TNA_LN, NGRAD_TSA_LN, NGRAD_TNA and NGRAD_TSA. Our analysis 
                         is limited to the NEB rainy season (March-May), when the GRAD mode 
                         is more pronounced and the NEB rainfall is more closely related to 
                         the TA SST variations. In general, the South Atlantic subtropical 
                         high is crucial in defining the cross-equatorial flow, responsible 
                         for the anomalous meridional positioning of the Atlantic 
                         inter-tropical convergence zone. When a positive (negative) 
                         dipole-like SST anomaly pattern is established in the TA, the 
                         negative (positive) rainfall anomalies occupy most of NEB. This is 
                         the case of the PGRAD_TSA_EN, PGRAD_TNA, NGRAD_TSA_LN and 
                         NGRAD_TNA_LN. Most of the GRAD modes defined by TNA are also 
                         related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in such a way 
                         that an EN (a LN) precedes a PGRAD (NGRAD) event, and most of the 
                         GRAD modes defined by TSA do not depend on the ENSO. Also, the 
                         PGRAD events are well distributed during both Atlantic 
                         multidecadal oscillation phases and the NGRAD events occur 
                         preferably during its cold phase.",
                  doi = "10.1002/joc.5545",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.5545",
                 issn = "0899-8418",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "kayano_how.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"