author = "Alvim, D{\'e}bora Souza and Gatti, Luciana Vanni and Corr{\^e}a, 
                         Sergio Machado and Chiquetto, J{\'u}lio Barboza and Santos, 
                         Guaciara Macedo and Rossatti, Carlos de Souza and Pretto, 
                         Ang{\'e}lica and Rozante, Jos{\'e} Roberto and Figueroa Rivero, 
                         Silvio Nilo and Pendharkar, Jayant and Nobre, Paulo",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Estadual do Rio de 
                         Janeiro (UERJ)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {University of California} and {Instituto de Pesquisas 
                         Energ{\'e}ticas e Nucleares (IPEN)} and {Instituto de Pesquisas 
                         Energ{\'e}ticas e Nucleares (IPEN)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Determining VOCs Reactivity for Ozone Forming Potential in the 
                         Megacity of Sao Paulo",
              journal = "Aerosol and Air Quality Research",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "18",
               number = "9",
                pages = "2460--2474",
                month = "Sept.",
             keywords = "Ozone-forming potential, Air quality, VOCs, Incremental 
             abstract = "High ozone (O-3) concentrations are a major concern about air 
                         quality in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). During 2016, 
                         the 8-hour state standard of 140 mu g m(-3) was exceeded on 32 
                         days, whereas the 1-hour national standard of 160 mu g m(-3) was 
                         exceeded on 76 days. Exposure to such unhealthy O-3 levels and 
                         other pollutants can lead to respiratory disease. The focus of 
                         this study is to determine the main O-3 precursor in terms of the 
                         volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in order to provide a scientific 
                         basis for controlling this pollutant. In this work, 66 samples of 
                         hydrocarbons, 62 of aldehydes and 42 of ethanol were taken during 
                         the period from September 2011 to August 2012 from 7:00 to 9:00 
                         a.m. The OZIPR trajectory model and SAPRC atmospheric chemical 
                         mechanism were used to determine the major O-3 precursors. During 
                         the studied period, aldehydes represented 35.3% of the VOCs, 
                         followed by ethanol (22.6%), aromatic compounds (15.7%), alkanes 
                         (13.5%), ketones (6.8%), alkenes (6.0%) and alkadienes (less than 
                         0.1%). Considering the concentration of VOCs and their typical 
                         reactivity, the simulation results showed that acetaldehyde 
                         contributed 61.2% of the O-3 formation. The total aldehydes 
                         contributed 74%, followed by aromatics (14.5%), alkenes (10.2%), 
                         alkanes (1.3%) and alkadienes (e.g., isoprene; 0.03%). Simulation 
                         results for the SPMA showed that the most effective alternative 
                         for limiting the O-3 levels was reducing the VOC emissions, mainly 
                         the aldehydes.",
                  doi = "10.4209/aaqr.2017.10.0361",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.10.0361",
                 issn = "1680-8584",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "alvim_determining.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "01 dez. 2020"