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@Article{AbernethyAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCDDDEJLLGDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDEEEEEFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFGGGGGGGGGGGGGGHHHHHHHHHHHHHRHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHIIIIIIIJJJJJJJJJJJJJKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLMLLLLLLLLLLLLLMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMLMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMNNNNNNNNOOOOOPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPQRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRSSSSSSSSSSSSSJSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSWSSSSSSSSSSSSSSTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTVVVVVVVVVVVVVVWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWXYYYYZZZZZZZZZGHLMRSSVM:2018:StCl20,
               author = "Abernethy, R. and Ackerman, S. A. and Adler, R. and Albanil 
                         Encarnaci{\'o}n, A. and Aldeco, L. S. and Alfaro, E. J. and 
                         Aliaga-Nestares, V. and Allan, R. P. and Allan, R. and Alves, 
                         Lincoln Muniz and Amador, J. A. and Anderson, J. and Andreassen, 
                         L. M. and Arg{\"u}ez, A. and Armitage, C. and Arndt, D. S. and 
                         Avalos, G. and Azorin-Molina, C. and B{\'a}ez, J. and Bardin, M. 
                         Yu. and Barichivich, J. and Baringer, M. O. and Barreira, S. and 
                         Baxter, S. and Beck, H. E. and Becker, A. and Bedka, K. M. and 
                         Behe, C. and Bell, G. D. and Bellouin, N. and Belmont, M. and 
                         Benedetti, A. and Bernhard, G. H. and Berrisford, P. and Berry, D. 
                         I. and Bhatt, U. S. and Bissolli, P. and Bjerke, J. and Blake, E. 
                         S. and Blenkinsop, S. and Blunden, J. and Bolmgren, K. and 
                         Bosilovich, M. G. and Boucher, O. and Bouchon, M. and Box, J. E. 
                         and Boyer, T. and Braathen, G. O. and Bromwich, D. H. and Brown, 
                         R. and Buehler, S. and Bulygina, O. N. and Burgess, D. and 
                         Calder{\'o}n, B. and Camargo, S. J. and Campbell, E. C. and 
                         Campbell, J. D. and Cappelen, J. and Carrea, L. and Carter, B. R. 
                         and Castro, A. and Chambers, D. P. and Cheng, L. and Christiansen, 
                         H. H. and Christy, J. R. and Chung, E. -S. and Clem, K. R. and 
                         Coelho, Caio Augusto dos Santos and Coldewey-Egbers, M. and 
                         Colwell, S. and Cooper, O. R. and Copland, L. and Costanza, C. and 
                         Covey, C. and Coy, L. and Cronin, T. and Crouch, J. and Cruzado, 
                         L. and Daniel, R. and Davis, S. M. and Davletshin, S. G. and De 
                         Eyto, E. and De Jeu, R. A. M. and De La Cour, J. L. and De Laat, 
                         J. and De Gasperi, C. L. and Degenstein, D. and Deline, P. and 
                         Demircan, M. and Derksen, C. and Dewitte, B. and Dhurmea, R. and 
                         Di Girolamo, L. and Diamond, H. J. and Dickerson, C. and 
                         Dlugokencky, E. J. and Dohan, K. and Dokulil, M. T. and Dolman, A. 
                         J. and Domingues, C. M. and Domingues, R. and Donat, M. G. and 
                         Dong, S. and Dorigo, W. A. and Drozdov, D. S. and Dunn, R. J. H. 
                         and Durre, I. and Dutton, G. S. and Eakin, C. M. and El Kharrim, 
                         M. and Elkins, J. W. and Epstein, H. E. and Espinoza, J. C. and 
                         Famiglietti, J. S. and Farmer, J. and Farrell, S. and Fauchald, P. 
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                         Francis, S. D. and Franz, B. A. and Frey, R. A. and Frith, S. M. 
                         and Froidevaux, L. and Ganter, C. and Geiger, E. F. and Gerland, 
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                         A. M. and Goni, G. and Grooß, J. U. and Gruber, A. and Guard, C. 
                         P. and Gugliemin, M. and Gupta, S. K. and Guti{\'e}rrez, D. and 
                         Haas, C. and Hagos, S. and Hahn, S. and Haimberger, L. and Hall, 
                         B. D. and Halpert, M. S. and Hamlington, B. D. and Hanna, E. and 
                         Hansen, K. and Hanssen-Bauer, L. and Harris, I. and Hartfield, G. 
                         and Heidinger, A. K. and Heim and R., R. and Jr. and Helfrich, S. 
                         and Hemming, D. L. and Hendricks, S. and Hern{\'a}ndez, R. and 
                         Hern{\'a}ndez, S. M. and Heron, S. F. and Heuz{\'e}, C. and 
                         Hidalgo, H. G. and Ho, S. -P. and Hobbs, W. R. and Horstkotte, T. 
                         and Huang, B. and Hubert, D. and Hueuz{\'e}, C. and Hurst, D. F. 
                         and Ialongo, I. and Ibrahim, M. M. and Ijampy, J. A. and Inness, 
                         A. and Isaac, V. and Isaksen, K. and Ishii, M. and Jacobs, S. J. 
                         and Jeffries, M. O. and Jevrejeva, S. and Jim{\'e}nez, C. and 
                         Jin, X. and John, V. and Johns, W. E. and Johnsen, B. and Johnson, 
                         B. and Johnson, G. C. and Johnson, K. S. and Jones, P. D. and 
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                         L. M. and Kennedy, J. and Kerr, K. and Khan, M. S. and Kholodov, 
                         A. L. and Khoshkam, M. and Killick, R. and Kim, H. and Kim, S. -J. 
                         and Klotzbach, P. J. and Knaff, J. A. and Kohler, J. and Korhonen, 
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                         Lakatos, M. and Lakkala, K. and Lander, M. A. and 
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                         and Mart{\'{\i}}nez, A. G. and Mart{\'{\i}}nez-G{\"u}ingla, 
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                         Meier, W. and Meijers, A. J. S. and Mekonnen, A. and Mengistu 
                         Tsidu, G. and Menzel, W. P. and Merchant, C. J. and Meredith, M. 
                         P. and Merrifield, M. A. and Miller, B. and Miralles, D. G. and 
                         Mitchum, G. T. and Mitro, S. and Moat, B. and Mochizuki, Y. and 
                         Monselesan, D. and Montzka, S. A. and Mora, N. and Morice, C. and 
                         Mosquera-V{\'a}squez, K. and Mostafa, A. E. and Mote, T. and 
                         Mudryk, L. and M{\"u}hle, J. and Mullan, A. B. and M{\"u}ller, 
                         R. and Myneni, R. and Nash, E. R. and Nerem, R. S. and Newman, L. 
                         and Newman, P. A. and Nielsen-Gammon, J. W. and Nieto, J. J. and 
                         Noetzli, J. and Noll, B. E. and O'Neel, S. and Osborn, T. J. and 
                         Osborne, E. and Overland, J. and Oyunjargal, L. and Park, T. and 
                         Pasch, R. J. and Pascual-Ram{\'{\i}}rez, R. and Pastor Saavedra, 
                         M. A. and Paterson, A. M. and Paulik, C. and Pearce, P. R. and 
                         Peltier, A. and Pelto, M. S. and Peng, L. and Perkins-Kirkpatrick, 
                         S. E. and Perovich, D. and Petropavlovskikh, I. and Pezza, A. B. 
                         and Phillips, C. and Phillips, D. and Phoenix, G. and Pinty, B. 
                         and Pinzon, J. and Po-Chedley, S. and Polashenski, C. and Purkey, 
                         S. G. and Quispe, N. and Rajeevan, M. and Rakotoarimalala, C. and 
                         Rayner, D. and Raynolds, M. K. and Reagan, J. and Reid, P. and 
                         Reimer, C. and R{\'e}my, S. and Revadekar, J. V. and Richardson, 
                         A. D. and Richter-Menge, J. and Ricker, R. and Rimmer, A. and 
                         Robinson, D. A. and Rodell, M. and Rodriguez Camino, E. and 
                         Romanovsky, V. E. and Ronchail, J. and Rosenlof, K. H. and 
                         R{\"o}sner, B. and Roth, C. and Roth, D. M. and Rusak, J. A. and 
                         Rutish{\"a}user, T. and Sall{\'e}e, J. -B. and 
                         S{\'a}nchez-Lugo, A. and Santee, M. L. and Sasgen, L. and 
                         Sawaengphokhai, P. and Sayad, T. A. and Sayouri, A. and Scambos, 
                         T. A. and Scanlon, T. and Schenzinger, V. and Schladow, S. G. and 
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                         Wiese, D. N. and Wijffels, S. E. and Wilber, A. C. and Wild, J. D. 
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                         Zambrano, E. and Zhang, H. -M. and Zhang, P. and Zhao, G. and 
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                         Veasey, S. W. and McVicar, T. R.",
          affiliation = "{} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {} and {} 
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                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "State of the climate in 2017",
              journal = "Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "99",
               number = "8",
                pages = "Si-S310",
                 note = "{cited By 0}",
             keywords = "Atmospheric temperature, Bleaching, Carbon dioxide, Cleaning, 
                         Fires, Floods, Global warming, Greenhouse gases, Hurricanes, 
                         Nitrogen oxides, Rain, Satellites, Sea ice, Sea level, Storms, 
                         Surface properties, Surface waters, Tropics, Carbon dioxide 
                         concentrations, Eastern equatorial Pacific, Increasing 
                         temperatures, Land surface temperature, Lower stratospheric 
                         temperature, Sea surface temperature (SST), Tropical cyclone 
                         records, Tropospheric temperature, Growth rate.",
             abstract = "In 2017, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's 
                         atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-reached new 
                         record highs. The annual global average carbon dioxide 
                         concentration at Earth's surface for 2017 was 405.0 ± 0.1 ppm, 2.2 
                         ppm greater than for 2016 and the highest in the modern 
                         atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back 
                         as far as 800 000 years. The global growth rate of CO2 has nearly 
                         quadrupled since the early 1960s. With ENSO-neutral conditions 
                         present in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during 
                         most of the year and weak La Niña conditions notable at the start 
                         and end, the global temperature across land and ocean surfaces 
                         ranked as the second or third highest, depending on the dataset, 
                         since records began in the mid-to-late 1800s. Notably, it was the 
                         warmest non-El Niño year in the instrumental record. Above Earth's 
                         surface, the annual lower tropospheric temperature was also either 
                         second or third highest according to all datasets analyzed. The 
                         lower stratospheric temperature was about 0.2°C higher than the 
                         record cold temperature of 2016 according to most of the in situ 
                         and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Argentina, 
                         Uruguay, Spain, and Bulgaria, reported record high annual 
                         temperatures. Mexico broke its annual record for the fourth 
                         consecutive year. On 27 January, the temperature reached 43.4°C at 
                         Puerto Madryn, Argentina-the highest temperature recorded so far 
                         south (43°S) anywhere in the world. On 28 May in Turbat, western 
                         Pakistan, the high of 53.5°C tied Pakistan's all-time highest 
                         temperature and became the world-record highest temperature for 
                         May. In the Arctic, the 2017 land surface temperature was 1.6°C 
                         above the 1981-2010 average, the second highest since the record 
                         began in 1900, behind only 2016. The five highest annual Arctic 
                         temperatures have all occurred since 2007. Exceptionally high 
                         temperatures were observed in the permafrost across the Arctic, 
                         with record values reported in much of Alaska and northwestern 
                         Canada. In August, high sea surface temperature (SST) records were 
                         broken for the Chukchi Sea, with some regions as warm as +11°C, or 
                         3° to 4°C warmer than the longterm mean (1982-present). According 
                         to paleoclimate studies, today's abnormally warm Arctic air and 
                         SSTs have not been observed in the last 2000 years. The increasing 
                         temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and 
                         thickness. On 7 March, sea ice extent at the end of the growth 
                         season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, 
                         covering 8% less area than the 1981-2010 average. The Arctic sea 
                         ice minimum on 13 September was the eighth lowest on record and 
                         covered 25% less area than the long-term mean. Preliminary data 
                         indicate that glaciers across the world lost mass for the 38th 
                         consecutive year on record; the declines are remarkably consistent 
                         from region to region. Cumulatively since 1980, this loss is 
                         equivalent to slicing 22 meters off the top of the average 
                         glacier. Antarctic sea ice extent remained below average for all 
                         of 2017, with record lows during the first four months. Over the 
                         continent, the austral summer seasonal melt extent and melt index 
                         were the second highest since 2005, mostly due to strong positive 
                         anomalies of air temperature over most of the West Antarctic 
                         coast. In contrast, the East Antarctic Plateau saw record low mean 
                         temperatures in March. The year was also distinguished by the 
                         second smallest Antarctic ozone hole observed since 1988. Across 
                         the global oceans, the overall long-term SST warming trend 
                         remained strong. Although SST cooled slightly from 2016 to 2017, 
                         the last three years produced the three highest annual values 
                         observed; these high anomalies have been associated with 
                         widespread coral bleaching. The most recent global coral bleaching 
                         lasted three full years, June 2014 to May 2017, and was the 
                         longest, most widespread, and almost certainly most destructive 
                         such event on record. Global integrals of 0-700-m and 0-2000-m 
                         ocean heat content reached record highs in 2017, and global mean 
                         sea level during the year became the highest annual average in the 
                         25-year satellite altimetry record, rising to 77 mm above the 1993 
                         average. In the tropics, 2017 saw 85 named tropical storms, 
                         slightly above the 1981-2010 average of 82. The North Atlantic 
                         basin was the only basin that featured an above-normal season, its 
                         seventh most active in the 164-year record. Three hurricanes in 
                         the basin were especially notable. Harvey produced record rainfall 
                         totals in areas of Texas and Louisiana, including a storm total of 
                         1538.7 mm near Beaumont, Texas, which far exceeds the previous 
                         known U.S. tropical cyclone record of 1320.8 mm. Irma was the 
                         strongest tropical cyclone globally in 2017 and the strongest 
                         Atlantic hurricane outside of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean on 
                         record with maximum winds of 295 km h-1. Maria caused catastrophic 
                         destruction across the Caribbean Islands, including devastating 
                         wind damage and flooding across Puerto Rico. Elsewhere, the 
                         western North Pacific, South Indian, and Australian basins were 
                         all particularly quiet. Precipitation over global land areas in 
                         2017 was clearly above the long-term average. Among noteworthy 
                         regional precipitation records in 2017, Russia reported its second 
                         wettest year on record (after 2013) and Norway experienced its 
                         sixth wettest year since records began in 1900. Across India, 
                         heavy rain and flood-related incidents during the monsoon season 
                         claimed around 800 lives. In August and September, above-normal 
                         precipitation triggered the most devastating floods in more than a 
                         decade in the Venezuelan states of Bol{\'{\i}}var and Delta 
                         Amacuro. In Nigeria, heavy rain during August and September caused 
                         the Niger and Benue Rivers to overflow, bringing floods that 
                         displaced more than 100 000 people. Global fire activity was the 
                         lowest since at least 2003; however, high activity occurred in 
                         parts of North America, South America, and Europe, with an 
                         unusually long season in Spain and Portugal, which had their 
                         second and third driest years on record, respectively. Devastating 
                         fires impacted British Columbia, destroying 1.2 million hectares 
                         of timber, bush, and grassland, due in part to the region's driest 
                         summer on record. In the United States, an extreme western 
                         wildfire season burned over 4 million hectares; the total costs of 
                         18 billion tripled the previous U.S. annual wildfire cost record 
                         set in 1991.",
                 issn = "0003-0007",
                label = "iso2018-10-10",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "StateoftheClimate2017_lowres.pdf",
                  url = "https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85053681754\&partnerID=40\&md5=774452a028c9691b374d18f3aa24b0b3",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"
}


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