author = "Ara{\'u}jo, Ana Gabriela de Jesus and Obreg{\'o}n Parraga, 
                         Guillermo Oswaldo and Oliveira, Gilvan Sampaio de and Monteiro, 
                         Ant{\^o}nio Miguel Vieira and Silva, Luiz Tadeu da and Soriano, 
                         Balbina and Padovani, Carlos and Rodriguez, Daniel Andres and 
                         Maksic, Jelena and Farias, Jos{\'e} Felipe Silva",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecu{\'a}ria 
                         (EMBRAPA)} and {Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecu{\'a}ria 
                         (EMBRAPA)} and {Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade de {\'E}vora}",
                title = "Relationships between variability in precipitation, river levels, 
                         and beef cattle production in the Brazilian Pantanal",
              journal = "Wetlands Ecology and Management",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "26",
               number = "5",
                pages = "829--848",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "Pantanal wetlands Hidrological spatiotemporal variability Beef 
                         cattle production Paraguay River.",
             abstract = "The hydrology of the Brazilian Pantanal, part of the largest humid 
                         tropical area on the planet, follows the rhythm of seasonal 
                         floods. The traditional movement of cattle herds in the southern 
                         Pantanal is defined by these seasonal flooding patterns, which 
                         determine the availability and quality of native-grass pastures 
                         throughout the year. Extreme hydrological events, such as 
                         prolonged droughts and intense floods, can impact the management 
                         of cattle in this region, preventing access to, circulation 
                         within, and occupation of some grazing areas. This study aims to 
                         analyze the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation, the 
                         river levels in this region from 1974 to 2012, and assessed the 
                         effects on the evolution of local beef cattle stocks. We 
                         integrated the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation and 
                         river levels for six gaging stations and standardized these 
                         variables using standard deviation and linear trends at annual and 
                         seasonal scales. Additionally, we integrated the results with an 
                         analysis of the livestock production within the regions 
                         municipalities. Regional precipitation was highly variable, 
                         including an almost decadal oscillation, with positive trends in 
                         parts of the 1970s and 1980s and a negative trend since the 1990s. 
                         River levels in the northern portion of the basin and in the 
                         Paraguay River corresponded to those dynamics while presenting 
                         marked anomalies. Simultaneously, river levels in the eastern 
                         Pantanal changed from negative to positive anomalies, which were 
                         more intense in wet months. Both the eastern and western patterns 
                         reflected the occurrence of extreme El Ni˝oSouthern Oscillation 
                         events and other large-scale climatic patterns. In intra-annual 
                         terms, the variability of the river levels during the flooded 
                         months at four of the six gaging stations studied suggests an 
                         early onset or delay of the flood season, as well as positive 
                         anomalies in the ebbing months and in the southeast. Given the 
                         lags in flow between different rivers in the region, this behavior 
                         draws attention to dam construction and intensification of 
                         localized flooding in the southern areas, which may impact 
                         everyday life and cattle management. For example, from 2009 to 
                         2012, two severe droughts and an extreme flood significantly 
                         impacted livestock numbers in the region. Overall, herd numbers 
                         decreased (increased) in humid (dry) periods, including a 
                         reduction of over 1 million head during the flood of 19731974. The 
                         differential level patterns at annual, wet season, and dry season 
                         between the eastern and western sides of the Pantanal modulate the 
                         livestock activities, where the strong negative anomalies of the 
                         levels along the eastern side seem to force the diminution of beef 
                         cattle stock at local regions in different intensities in annual 
                         scale. This reinforces the effects of climate variability and 
                         extreme hydrological events on the management and dynamics of the 
                         beef cattle industry and market in Brazil.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s11273-018-9612-0",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11273-018-9612-0",
                 issn = "0923-4861",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "araujo_relationships.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "26 nov. 2020"