author = "Brazil, Tayra R. and Oliveira Junior, Mauro S. and Baldan, 
                         Maur{\'{\i}}cio Ribeiro and Massi, Marcos and Rezende, Mirabel 
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de S{\~a}o Paulo (UNIFESP)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal de S{\~a}o Paulo (UNIFESP)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal 
                         de S{\~a}o Paulo (UNIFESP)} and {Universidade Federal de S{\~a}o 
                         Paulo (UNIFESP)}",
                title = "Effect of different superficial treatments on structural, 
                         morphological and superficial area of Kraft lignin based 
              journal = "Vibrational Spectroscopy",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "99",
                pages = "130--136",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "Kraft lignin, Activated carbon, Carbonization, Surface 
             abstract = "Lignin is a biomass derived from an abundant renewable source, 
                         rich in carbon and with potential application in modern society. 
                         The goal of this work is to add more value to lignin through its 
                         thermal conversion in charcoal, as well contribute to solutions 
                         linked to environmental preservation. Charcoal was obtained from 
                         Kraft lignin and its surface was modified using chemical (acid 
                         attack) and physical (microwave plasma) methods, in order to get 
                         charcoals different characteristics. In this work, the prepared 
                         charcoals were characterized by field emission gun - scanning 
                         electron microscope (FEG-SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier 
                         transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and superficial area by 
                         BET analyses. Microscopic analyses evidenced morphological 
                         differences in the samples as consequence of the used superficial 
                         treatments. Raman spectroscopy results point to an increase in the 
                         carbon material disorder after chemical and physical treatments. 
                         The acid attack of charcoal increased its superficial area by 40% 
                         (403 m2 /g) in relation to the charcoal without chemical treatment 
                         (287 m2 /g). Physical treatment based on microwave plasma promoted 
                         a further increase in superficial area of 63% (468 m2 /g). FT-IR 
                         showed that chemically treated charcoals presented more functional 
                         groups. Based on these results, it can be verified that the 
                         production of activated charcoal from lignin is viable and its 
                         superficial area can be increased using acid and plasma 
                         treatments, the latter being a more efficient and clean method.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.vibspec.2018.08.021",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2018.08.021",
                 issn = "0924-2031",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "brazil_effect.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "11 maio 2021"