author = "Silva, Camila V. J. and Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz 
                         de and Barlow, Jos and Espirito Santo, Fernando and Young, Paul J. 
                         and Anderson, Liana O. and Berenguer, Erika and Brasil, Izaias and 
                         Brown, I. Foster and Castro, Bruno and Farias, Renato and 
                         Ferreira, Joice and Fran{\c{c}}a, Filipe and Gra{\c{c}}a, Paulo 
                         M. L. A. and Kirsten, Let{\'{\i}}cia and Lopes, Aline Pontes and 
                         Salimon, Cleber and Scaranello, Marcos Augusto and Seixas, Marina 
                         and Souza, Fernanda C. and Xaud, Haron A. M.",
          affiliation = "{Lancaster University} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Lancaster University} and {Centre for 
                         Landscape and Climate Research (CLCR)} and {Lancaster University} 
                         and {Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastre 
                         Naturais (CEMADEN)} and {Lancaster University} and {Universidade 
                         Federal do Acre (UFAC)} and {Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC)} 
                         and {Instituto Centro de Vida} and {Instituto Centro de Vida} and 
                         {Embrapa Amaz{\^o}nia Oriental} and {Lancaster University} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade Estadual da Para{\'{\i}}ba (UEPB)} and {Instituto 
                         Centro de Vida} and {Embrapa Amaz{\^o}nia Oriental} and 
                         {University of Leeds} and {Embrapa Roraima}",
                title = "Drought-induced Amazonian wildfires instigate a decadal-scale 
                         disruption of forest carbon dynamics",
              journal = "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological 
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "373",
               number = "1760",
                pages = "e20180043",
                month = "nov.",
             keywords = "post-fire dynamics, stem mortality, wood productivity, long-term 
                         recovery, fire disturbance, drought.",
             abstract = "Drought-induced wildfires have increased in frequency and extent 
                         over the tropics. Yet, the long-term (greater than 10 years) 
                         responses of Amazonian lowland forests to fire disturbance are 
                         poorly known. To understand post-fire forest biomass dynamics, and 
                         to assess the time required for fire-affected forests to recover 
                         to pre-disturbance levels, we combined 16 single with 182 multiple 
                         forest census into a unique large-scale and long-term dataset 
                         across the Brazilian Amazonia. We quantified biomass, mortality 
                         and wood productivity of burned plots along a chronosequence of up 
                         to 31 years post-fire and compared to surrounding unburned plots 
                         measured simultaneously. Stem mortality and growth were assessed 
                         among functional groups. At the plot level, we found that 
                         fire-affected forests have biomass levels 24.8 +/- 6.9% below the 
                         biomass value of unburned control plots after 31 years. This lower 
                         biomass state results from the elevated levels of biomass loss 
                         through mortality, which is not sufficiently compensated for by 
                         wood productivity (incremental growth thorn recruitment). At the 
                         stem level, we found major changes in mortality and growth rates 
                         up to 11 years post-fire. The post-fire stem mortality rates 
                         exceeded unburned control plots by 680% (i.e. greater than 40 cm 
                         diameter at breast height (DBH); 5-8 years since last fire) and 
                         315% (i.e. greater than 0.7 g cm(-3) wood density; 0.75-4 years 
                         since last fire). Our findings indicate that wildfires in humid 
                         tropical forests can significantly reduce forest biomass for 
                         decades by enhancing mortality rates of all trees, including large 
                         and high wood density trees, which store the largest amount of 
                         biomass in old-growth forests. This assessment of stem dynamics, 
                         therefore, demonstrates that wildfires slow down or stall the 
                         post-fire recovery of Amazonian forests.",
                  doi = "10.1098/rstb.2018.0043",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0043",
                 issn = "1552-2814",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "silva_drought.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"