author = "Neves, Theomar and Fisch, Gilberto and Raasch, Siegfried",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Centro 
                         T{\'e}cnico Aeroespacial (CTA/IAE)} and {Leibniz University 
                title = "Local convection and turbulence in the Amazonia using Large Eddy 
                         Simulation model",
              journal = "Atmosphere",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "9",
               number = "10",
                pages = "e399",
                month = "Oct.",
             abstract = "Using a high resolution model of Large Eddies Simulation (LES), 
                         named PALM from PArallel LES Model, a set of simulations were 
                         performed to understand how turbulence and convection behave in a 
                         pasture and forest sites in Amazonia during the dry and rainy 
                         seasons. Related to seasonality, dry period presented higher 
                         differences of values (40Wm-2) and patterns over the sites, while 
                         in the wet period have more similar characteristics (difference of 
                         -10 W m-2). The pasture site had more convection than the forest, 
                         with effective mixing and a deeper boundary layer (2600 m). The 
                         vertical decrease of sensible heat flux with altitude fed 
                         convection and also influenced the convective boundary layer (CBL) 
                         height. Regarding the components of turbulent kinetic energy 
                         equation, the thermal production was the most important component 
                         and the dissipation rate responded with higher growth, especially 
                         in cases of greatest mechanical production at the forest surface 
                         reaching values up to -20.0.",
                  doi = "10.3390/atmos9100399",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100399",
                 issn = "2073-4433",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "neves_local.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jul. 2021"