author = "Koren, Gerbrand and Schaik, Erik van and Ara{\'u}jo, Alessandro 
                         C. and Boersma, K. Folkert and Gartner, Antje and Killaars, Lars 
                         and Kooreman, Maurits L. and Kruijt, Bart and Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid 
                         T. van der and Von Randow, Celso and Smith, Naomi E. and Peters, 
          affiliation = "{Wageningen University and Research} and {Wageningen University 
                         and Research} and {Embrapa Amaz{\^o}nia Oriental CPATU} and 
                         {Wageningen University and Research} and {Wageningen University 
                         and Research} and {University of Groningen} and {Royal Netherlands 
                         Meteorological Institute (KNMI)} and {Wageningen University and 
                         Research} and {Wageningen University and Research} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Wageningen University 
                         and Research} and {Wageningen University and Research}",
                title = "Widespread reduction in sun-induced fluorescence from the Amazon 
                         during the 2015/2016 El Niño",
              journal = "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological 
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "373",
               number = "1760",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "Amazon rainforest, drought response, tropical terrestrial carbon 
                         cycle, El Nin˜o-Southern Oscillation, sun-induced fluorescence, 
                         gross primary production.",
             abstract = "The tropical carbon balance dominates year-to-year variations in 
                         the CO2 exchange with the atmosphere through photosynthesis, 
                         respiration and fires. Because of its high correlation with gross 
                         primary productivity (GPP), observations of sun-induced 
                         fluorescence (SIF) are of great interest. We developed a new 
                         remotely sensed SIF product with improved signal-to-noise in the 
                         tropics, and use it here to quantify the impact of the 2015/2016 
                         El Niño Amazon drought. We find that SIF was strongly suppressed 
                         over areas with anomalously high temperatures and decreased levels 
                         of water in the soil. SIF went below its climatological range 
                         starting from the end of the 2015 dry season (October) and 
                         returned to normal levels by February 2016 when atmospheric 
                         conditions returned to normal, but well before the end of 
                         anomalously low precipitation that persisted through June 2016. 
                         Impacts were not uniform across the Amazon basin, with the eastern 
                         part experiencing much larger (10-15%) SIF reductions than the 
                         western part of the basin (2-5%). We estimate the integrated loss 
                         of GPP relative to eight previous years to be 0.34-0.48 PgC in the 
                         three-month period October-November-December 2015.This article is 
                         part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El 
                         Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, 
                         mechanisms and implications'.",
                  doi = "10.1098/rstb.2017.0408",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0408",
                 issn = "1552-2814",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "koren_widespread.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "01 dez. 2020"