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@Article{AndersonRCFMDWA:2018:VuAmFo,
               author = "Anderson, Liana Oighenstein and Ribeiro Neto, Germano and Cunha, 
                         Ana Paula and Fonseca, Marisa Gesteira and Moura, Yhasmin Mendes 
                         de and Dalagnol, Ricardo and Wagner, Fabien Hubert and 
                         Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de",
          affiliation = "{Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais 
                         (CEMADEN)} and {Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alertas de 
                         Desastres Naturais (CEMADEN)} and {Centro Nacional de 
                         Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais (CEMADEN)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Lancaster 
                         University} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Vulnerability of Amazonian forests to repeated droughts",
              journal = "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological 
                         Sciences",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "373",
               number = "1760",
                month = "Oct.",
             abstract = "Extreme droughts have been recurrent in the Amazon over the past 
                         decades, causing socio-economic and environmental impacts. Here, 
                         we investigate the vulnerability of Amazonian forests, both 
                         undisturbed and human-modified, to repeated droughts. We defined 
                         vulnerability as a measure of (i) exposure, which is the degree to 
                         which these ecosystems were exposed to droughts, and (ii) its 
                         sensitivity, measured as the degree to which the drought has 
                         affected remote sensing-derived forest greenness. The exposure was 
                         calculated by assessing the meteorological drought, using the 
                         standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the maximum cumulative 
                         water deficit (MCWD), which is related to vegetation water stress, 
                         from 1981 to 2016. The sensitivity was assessed based on the 
                         enhanced vegetation index anomalies (AEVI), derived from the newly 
                         available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer 
                         (MODIS)/Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction 
                         algorithm (MAIAC) product, from 2003 to 2016, which is indicative 
                         of forest's photosynthetic capacity. We estimated that 46% of the 
                         Brazilian Amazon biome was under severe to extreme drought in 
                         2015/2016 as measured by the SPI, compared with 16% and 8% for the 
                         2009/2010 and 2004/2005 droughts, respectively. The most recent 
                         drought (2015/2016) affected the largest area since the drought of 
                         1981. Droughts tend to increase the variance of the photosynthetic 
                         capacity of Amazonian forests as based on the minimum and maximum 
                         AEVI analysis. However, the area showing a reduction in 
                         photosynthetic capacity prevails in the signal, reaching more than 
                         400 000 km2 of forests, four orders of magnitude larger than areas 
                         with AEVI enhancement. Moreover, the intensity of the negative 
                         AEVI steadily increased from 2005 to 2016. These results indicate 
                         that during the analysed period drought impacts were being 
                         exacerbated through time. Forests in the twenty-first century are 
                         becoming more vulnerable to droughts, with larger areas 
                         intensively and negatively responding to water shortage in the 
                         region.",
                  doi = "10.1098/rstb.2017.0411",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0411",
                 issn = "1552-2814",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "anderson_vulnerability.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "01 dez. 2020"
}


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