author = "Dalagnol, Ricardo and Wagner, Fabien Hubert and Galv{\~a}o, 
                         L{\^e}nio Soares and Nelson, Bruce Walker and Arag{\~a}o, Luiz 
                         Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Life cycle of bamboo in the southwestern Amazon and its relation 
                         to fire events",
              journal = "Biogeosciences",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "15",
               number = "20",
                pages = "6087--6104",
                month = "Oct.",
             abstract = "Bamboo-dominated forests comprise 1 % of the world's forests and 3 
                         % of the Amazon forests. The Guadua spp. bamboos that dominate the 
                         southwest Amazon are semelparous; thus flowering and fruiting 
                         occur once in a lifetime before death. These events occur in 
                         massive spatially organized patches every 28 years and produce 
                         huge quantities of necromass. The bamboo-fire hypothesis argues 
                         that increased dry fuel after die-off enhances fire probability, 
                         creating opportunities that favor bamboo growth. In this study, 
                         our aim is to map the bamboo-dominated forests and test the 
                         bamboo-fire hypothesis using satellite imagery. Specifically, we 
                         developed and validated a method to map the bamboo die-off and its 
                         spatial distribution using satellite-derived reflectance time 
                         series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer 
                         (MODIS) and explored the bamboo-fire hypothesis by evaluating the 
                         relationship between bamboo die-off and fires detected by the 
                         MODIS thermal anomalies product in the southwest Amazon. Our 
                         findings show that the near-infrared (NIR) is the most sensitive 
                         spectral interval to characterize bamboo growth and cohort age. 
                         Automatic detection of historical bamboo die-off achieved an 
                         accuracy above 79 %. We mapped and estimated 15.5 million ha of 
                         bamboo-dominated forests in the region. The bamboo-fire hypothesis 
                         was not supported because only a small fraction of bamboo areas 
                         burned during the analysis timescale, and, in general, bamboo did 
                         not show higher fire probability after the die-off. Nonetheless, 
                         fire occurrence was 45 % higher in dead than live bamboo in 
                         drought years, associated with ignition sources from land use, 
                         suggesting a bamboo-human-fire association. Although our findings 
                         show that the observed fire was not sufficient to drive bamboo 
                         dominance, the increased fire occurrence in dead bamboo in drought 
                         years may contribute to the maintenance of bamboo and potential 
                         expansion into adjacent bamboo-free forests. Fire can even bring 
                         deadly consequences to these adjacent forests under climate change 
                  doi = "10.5194/bg-15-6087-2018",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-6087-2018",
                 issn = "1726-4170",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "dalagnol_life.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"