author = "Gon{\c{c}}alves, Iury Angelo and Innocentini, Valdir",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal do Esp{\'{\i}}rito Santo (UFES)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Analytical quantification of carbon dioxide exchange mediated by 
                         spume droplets",
              journal = "Boundary-Layer Meteorology",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "169",
               number = "2",
                pages = "327--345",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "Air-sea CO2 exchange, Droplet gas diffusion model, Spume droplet 
                         CO2 flux.",
             abstract = "The role of spume droplets in the air- sea exchange of CO2 is 
                         investigated by applying simultaneous rate equations for the mass 
                         of dissolved CO2, radius, and temperature of a droplet. The life 
                         of a droplet can be divided into two phases, except when the air 
                         is saturated, and when the air and sea temperatures are the same. 
                         In the first phase, the CO2 fluxes at the droplet surface and at 
                         the air- sea interface are in the same direction. In the second 
                         phase, the air- droplet CO2 gradient vanishes, and the droplet 
                         loses water and CO2 as long as there is evaporation. The largest 
                         sea- air CO2 transfer by the droplets is in the case where the sea 
                         temperature is greater than the air temperature, and the air- sea 
                         CO2 concentration gradient is towards the air. The net transfer of 
                         CO2 for a droplet depends on its lifetime, which is longer for 
                         smaller droplets. The overall role of a droplet spectrum is 
                         assessed assuming a sea- spray generation function for radii from 
                         30 to 500 mu m, whose formulation of its dependence on the 
                         surface- wave peak period and 10- m wind speed is currently 
                         accepted; for situations with an air- sea CO2 concentration 
                         gradient towards the air and a warmer sea than the air, the 
                         overall transfer obtained is towards the sea. The effect of the 
                         turbulence is analyzed by increasing the droplet lifetime by a 
                         factor of 10, which increases the CO2 flux towards the sea for 
                         droplet spectra composed mainly of small droplets ( generated by 
                         waves with small peak period). However, the mean droplet size is 
                         larger for droplets generated by waves with a high peak period, 
                         and then the flux is towards the air because many large droplets 
                         reach the second phase.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s10546-018-0369-z",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10546-018-0369-z",
                 issn = "0006-8314 and 1573-1472",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "goncalves_analytical.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"