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@Article{Benites-LazaroMell:2019:EmCoLo,
               author = "Benites-Lazaro, Lira Luz and Mello-Th{\'e}ry, N. A.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)}",
                title = "Empowering communities? local stakeholders’ participation in the 
                         clean development mechanism in Latin America",
              journal = "World Development",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "114",
                pages = "254--266",
                month = "Fe.b",
             keywords = "Stakeholder Theory, Participation, Consultation, Governance, Clean 
                         Development Mechanism (CDM), Climate Policy, Kyoto Protocol, Latin 
                         America, Sustainable Development.",
             abstract = "Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 
                         the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) requires local stakeholders 
                         to participate by sharing their comments on CDM activities. This 
                         stipulation aims at promoting social equity, a key element of 
                         sustainable development. We draw on the stakeholder theory to 
                         examine the local stakeholder participatory process in CDM in four 
                         Latin American countries Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru. We 
                         analyze 625 projects using cluster analysis and multidimensional 
                         scaling. The results confirm that in countries that have put in 
                         place national procedures for stakeholder consultation, such as 
                         Brazil and Peru, the role of national institutions is highlighted. 
                         Conversely, in countries with no national government guidelines on 
                         local stakeholder participation, such as Honduras and Mexico, 
                         private companies dominate the local stakeholder consultation 
                         process. In all the four countries, we identify a lack of 
                         community involvement in discussions and deliberations on the 
                         potential benefits of CDM projects, and a lack of participatory 
                         decision-making mechanisms. The projects we analyzed demonstrate 
                         that companies use stakeholder participation concept merely as a 
                         rhetoric tool to legitimate company activities, ostensibly to 
                         create value for all involved, but in practice providing almost no 
                         participation to the local communities. The findings also suggest 
                         the importance of national legal requirements in ensuring broad 
                         engagement at the local level. The stakeholder model established 
                         for CDM can be improved in the new market mechanism under the 
                         Paris Agreement by empowering local authorities and by formulating 
                         guidelines in domestic legal provisions for participatory 
                         processes.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.10.005",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.10.005",
                 issn = "0305-750X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "benites_empowering.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "02 dez. 2020"
}


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