author = "Rossetti, Dilce de F{\'a}tima and Gribel, Rog{\'e}rio and 
                         Toledo, Peter Mann de and Tatumi, Sonia H. and Yee, M{\'a}rcio 
                         and Tudela, Diego R. G. and Munita, Casimiro S. and Coelho, Luiz 
                         de Souza",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal 
                         de S{\~a}o Paulo (UNIFESP)} and {Universidade Federal de S{\~a}o 
                         Paulo (UNIFESP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Instituto de Pesquisas Energ{\'e}ticas e Nucleares (IPEN)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)}",
                title = "Unfolding long-term Late Pleistocene–Holocene disturbances of 
                         forest communities in the southwestern Amazonian lowlands",
              journal = "Ecosphere",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "9",
               number = "10",
                pages = "e02457",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "Amazonian lowlands, distribution patterns, forest onset, 
                         geological history, Holocene, Late Pleistocene,long-term 
             abstract = "Linking the distribution of plant species to geology has generally 
                         been biased by the over-simplification of landscape evolution and 
                         the lack of understanding of complex geological processes. The 
                         Amazonian lowlands have forests in different successional stages, 
                         and a growing perception is that such heterogeneity results from 
                         long-term environmental changes. This hypothesis is investigated 
                         by designing an analytical model based on past and present-day 
                         vegetation and successions of the plant communities, combined with 
                         an advanced understanding of geological history. An area of 
                         southwestern Amazonia was selected for floristic inventories, and 
                         we interpreted the paleovegetation based on C/N and \δ13C 
                         analyses of sedimentary organic matter. These data were examined 
                         in the context of the geological evolution on the basis of new 
                         sedimentological and chronological data. The topographically high 
                         Late Pleistocene deposits had continuous and highly diversified 
                         late-successional terra firme forests as well as local fluvial 
                         paleolandforms of younger ages with less diversified campinarana 
                         forests. Late PleistoceneHolocene terrains in intermediate 
                         elevations had terra firme forests, but shorter trees with lower 
                         basal areas and ecotonal forests appeared near the confines of the 
                         forestsavanna, while Holocene deposits recorded only seasonally 
                         flooded varzea forests. Several deposits of Late Pleistocene and 
                         Late PleistoceneHolocene age recorded an expansion of C4 
                         terrestrial plants before the establishment of the forest from 
                         ~20,000 cal yr BP to 7578 cal yr BP, which is not related to past 
                         arid episodes. We recorded forests with onsets at 61303533 cal yr 
                         BP, 34022800 cal yr BP, and 1624964 cal yr BP to terra firme, 
                         varzea, and ecotonal forests, respectively. However, not all 
                         forests have reached maturity stages due to their location on 
                         terrains with a diverse history of terrace downcutting and 
                         deposition, which had a direct impact on local hydrology with the 
                         interaction of topographic gradients. The hydrology of the study 
                         area was also controlled by the distance from the main river 
                         valley. Capturing long-term disturbances over this region of still 
                         pristine forests may help elucidate the potential mechanisms that 
                         also determine trends in tree growth and forest diversity in other 
                         Neotropical regions.",
                  doi = "10.1002/ecs2.2457",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2457",
                 issn = "2150-8925",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Rossetti_et_al-2018-Ecosphere.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "11 maio 2021"