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@Article{MuraGaPaNeCaOlBr:2018:MoVuDa,
               author = "Mura, Jos{\'e} Cl{\'a}udio and Gama, F{\'a}bio Furlan and 
                         Paradella, Waldir Renato and Negr{\~a}o, Priscila and Carneiro, 
                         Samuel and Oliveira, Cleber G. de and Brand{\~a}o, Waldiza S.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {SAMARCO Minera{\c{c}}{\~a}o S.A.} and 
                         {VISIONA Tecnologia Espacial} and {VISIONA Tecnologia Espacial}",
                title = "Monitoring the vulnerability of the dam and dikes in Germano iron 
                         mining area after the collapse of the tailings dam of fund{\~a}o 
                         (Mariana-MG, Brazil) using DInSAR techniques with terraSAR-X 
                         data",
              journal = "Remote Sensing",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "10",
               number = "10",
                pages = "e1507",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "tailing dam, Germano, Fund{\~a}o, SBAS, PSI, TerraSAR-X, ground 
                         displacement.",
             abstract = "The Fund{\~a}o tailings dam in the Germano iron mining complex 
                         (Mariana, Brazil) collapsed on the afternoon of 5 November 2015, 
                         and around 32.6 million cubic meters of mining waste spilled from 
                         the dam, causing polluion with mining waste along a trajectory of 
                         668 km, extending to the Atlantic Ocean. The Sela \& Tulipa and 
                         Selinha dikes, and the main Germano tailings dam, were directly or 
                         indirectly affected by the accident. This work presents an 
                         investigation using Advanced-Differential Interferometric 
                         Synthetic Aperture Radar (A-DInSAR) techniques for risk assessment 
                         in these critical structures during 18 months after the 
                         catastrophic event. The approach was based on the integration of 
                         SBAS (Small Baseline Subset) and PSI (Persistent Scatterer 
                         Interferometry) techniques, aiming at detecting linear and 
                         nonlinear ground displacements in these mining structures. It used 
                         a set of 48 TerraSAR-X images acquired on ascending mode from 11 
                         November 2015 to 15 May 2017. The results provided by the A-DInSAR 
                         analysis indicated an overall stability in the dikes and in the 
                         main wall of Germano tailings dam, which is in agreement with in 
                         situ topographic monitoring. In addition, it was possible to 
                         detect areas within the reservoir showing accumulated values of up 
                         to \−125 mm of subsidence, probably caused by settlements 
                         of the waste dry material due to the interruption of the mining 
                         waste deposition, and values up to \−80 mm on auxiliary 
                         dikes, probably caused by continuous traffic of heavy equipment. 
                         The spatiotemporal information of surface displacement of this 
                         large mining structure can be used for future operational planning 
                         and risk control.",
                  doi = "10.3390/rs10101507",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs10101507",
                 issn = "2072-4292",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "mura_monitoring.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"
}


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