author = "Guimar{\~a}es, Ulisses Silva and Narvaes, Igor da Silva and Galo, 
                         Maria de Lourdes Bueno Trindade and Silva, Arnaldo de Queiroz da 
                         and Camargo, Paulo de Oliveira",
          affiliation = "{Centro Gestor e Operacional do Sistema de Prote{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia/Centro Regional de Bel{\'e}m 
                         (CENSIPAM/CR-Bel{\'e}m)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Par{\'a} (UFPA)} and {Universidade 
                         Estadual Paulista (UNESP)}",
                title = "Radargrammetric approaches to the flat relief of the amazon coast 
                         using COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X datasets",
              journal = "ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "145",
               number = "B",
                pages = "284--296",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "Synthetic aperture radar, Radargrammetry, Amazon coastal 
                         environments, Digital surface models.",
             abstract = "The Amazonian coast consists of extensive flood plains and 
                         plateaus characterized by a high discharge of water and sediment 
                         from the Amazon River. This wide landscape occurs under a tropical 
                         climate with heavy rains and high cloud cover, making it 
                         unsuitable for conventional mapping based on optical images. 
                         Additionally, the flat relief and vegetation structure of the 
                         Brazilian Amazon coast define an incoherent to partially coherent 
                         behavior for the microwave signal, rendering radargrammetric 
                         models more suitable for the three-dimensional mapping of its 
                         surface. This study aimed to assess the digital surface models 
                         (DSMs) provided by Cosmo-SkyMed (CSK) and TerraSAR-X (TSX) 
                         Stripmap datasets throughout the radargrammetric models from 
                         SARscape and Toutin. The DSMs were generated from SAR (synthetic 
                         aperture radar) data with an acquisition geometry that addressed 
                         the need for a compromise between the intersection angles and low 
                         temporal decorrelation. The radargrammetric SARscape and Toutin's 
                         models were developed from different amounts of stereo ground 
                         control points (SGCP). The generated DSMs were evaluated 
                         considering a set of 40 independent checkpoints (ICP) measured by 
                         GNSS in the field, in their entirety and disaggregated by coastal 
                         environment. The vertical accuracy was based on the estimation of 
                         the discrepancies, bias and precision (standard deviation and root 
                         mean square error RMSE), and the Taylor and Target diagrams were 
                         used for a more comprehensive comparison. In the vertical accuracy 
                         analysis using all ICPs measured in situ, the DSM obtained by the 
                         SARscape's model from the CSK SAR data resulted in the lowest RMSE 
                         (4.34 m) and mean discrepancy (0.05 m), but Toutin's model had the 
                         lowest standard deviation (2.58 m) of the discrepancies. The 
                         Taylor and Target diagrams showed fluctuations in accuracy that 
                         alternated the DSMs generated from the two types of SAR data, 
                         indicating that TSX produced more stable models and CSK produced 
                         better vertical accuracy. The Amazon Coastal Plateau and Fluvial 
                         Marine Terrace environments defined three-dimensional 
                         representations with lower RMSEs (better than 7.8 and 8.9 m, 
                         respectively), regardless of the type of SAR data or the 
                         radargrammetric model used. The worst performance, which was for 
                         the Fluvial Marine Plain, was influenced by the specific 
                         characteristics of this coastal environment, such as the structure 
                         of the mangrove vegetation and the shoreline. In general, the high 
                         resolution and good ability to revisit the SAR data used, together 
                         with the radargrammetric models, allowed for the accurate mapping 
                         of the flat relief of the Amazon coastal environments, providing 
                         detailed spatial information that can be acquired in severe 
                         rainfall conditions in a region of intense morphological 
                  doi = "10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2018.09.001",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2018.09.001",
                 issn = "0924-2716",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "guimaraes_radargammetric.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "11 maio 2021"