author = "Ueda, M{\'a}rio and Silva, C. and Marcondes, Andr{\'e} Ricardo 
                         and Reuther, H. and Souza, G. B. de",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and HZDR, Rossendorf and {Universidade 
                         Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG)}",
                title = "Recent experiments on plasma immersion ion implantation (and 
                         deposition) using discharges inside metal tubes",
              journal = "Surface and Coatings Technology",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "355",
               number = "Special",
                pages = "98--110",
                month = "Dec.",
             keywords = "Plasma immersion ion implantation, Sputtering and deposition 
                         inside metallic tubes, Tubes with different dimensions and 
                         configurations, TiN and Ti2N in high temperature PIII.",
             abstract = "Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of nitrogen inside 
                         metallic tubes of different diameters and configurations were 
                         attempted recently. PIII tests in practical size metallic tubes of 
                         SS304, ranging from 1.1 to 16 cm empty set and length of 20 cm, 
                         were carried out as a continued effort in our lab, to explore PIII 
                         inside tubes. Tubes in laying down positions and configurations 
                         including metallic lid in one side or both sides open were used, 
                         as well as, plane sample support placed 10 cm far from the tube 
                         mouth and without bias, taking advantage of plasma flowing out the 
                         tube. In particular, nitrogen and argon PIIIs were tested for tube 
                         inner wall sputtering and deposition studies, running the PIII 
                         system in the last configuration of sample support detached from 
                         the tube. During the nitrogen ion implantation runs in other 
                         cases, it was found that the final temperature of the tubes and 
                         the plasma turn-on voltages were both inversely proportional to 
                         the dimensions of the tubes, except for the smallest tube tested. 
                         High voltage glow and hollow cathode discharges were produced 
                         inside the tubes, either alternately, during the pulse or 
                         independently, depending on the tube geometry and pulser used 
                         (LIITS, a current controlled source or RUP-4, a voltage controlled 
                         one). In the case of smallest diameter of 1.1 cm empty set, a 
                         suspended tube of SS304 was tested using lower power pulser 
                         (RUP-4), at its near maximum capability of 1.2 kW. In this case 
                         also, very bright plasmas were formed, mainly inside the tube and 
                         resulted in high temperature there (similar to 700 degrees C). 
                         Nitrogen uptake was superior for higher temperature PIII 
                         treatments (> 700 degrees C), combining ion implantation and 
                         thermal diffusion, which allowed the formation of TiN and Ti2N on 
                         the Ti alloy samples inside tubes with diameters <= 4 cm. In this 
                         paper, detailed discussion of results of above cited PIII tests 
                         with diversified tubes and configurations are presented, together 
                         with the analysis of the corresponding treated surfaces of the 
                         samples inside, outside and on the support detached from the 
                  doi = "10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.05.009",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.05.009",
                 issn = "0257-8972",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "ueda_recent.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"