author = "Ribeiro, I. O. and Andreoli, R. V. and Kayano, Mary Toshie and 
                         Sousa, T. R. and Medeiros, A. S. and Godoi, R. H. M. and Godoi, A. 
                         F. L. and Duvoisin Junior, S. and Martin, S. T. and Souza, R. A. 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and 
                         {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Universidade Federal do 
                         Paran{\'a} (UFPR)} and {Universidade Federal do Paran{\'a} 
                         (UFPR)} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA)} and 
                         {Harvard University} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas 
                title = "Biomass burning and carbon monoxide patterns in Brazil during the 
                         extreme drought years of 2005, 2010, and 2015",
              journal = "Environmental Pollution",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "243",
                pages = "1008--1014",
                month = "Dec.",
             keywords = "Greenhouse gas, El Nino, Extreme events, Climate variability, 
             abstract = "In the 21st century, severe droughts associated with climate 
                         change will increase biomass burning (BB) in Brazil caused by the 
                         human activities. Recent droughts, especially in 2005, 2010, and 
                         2015, caused strong socioeconomic and environmental impacts. The 
                         2015 drought considered the most severe since 1901, surpassed the 
                         2005 and 2010 events in respect to area and duration. Herein, 
                         based on satellite data, the 2005, 2010 and 2015 drought impacts 
                         on wildfire episodes and carbon monoxide (CO) variability during 
                         the dry and the dry-to-wet transition seasons were examined. The 
                         BB occurrences in the dry season were fewer during 2015 than 
                         during 2005 (-44%) and 2010 (-47%). Contrasting, the BB events in 
                         the dry-to-wet transition season, were higher during 2015 than 
                         during 2005 (+192%) and 2010 (+332%). The BB outbreaks were 
                         concentrated in the southern and southwestern Amazon during 2005, 
                         in the Cerrado region during 2010, and mainly in the central and 
                         northern Amazon during 2015, an area normally with few fires. The 
                         CO concentration showed positive variations (up to +30%) occurred 
                         in the southern Amazon and central Brazil during the 2005 and 2010 
                         dry seasons, and north of 20 degrees S during the 2015 -2016 
                         dry-to-wet transition season. The BB outbreaks and the CO 
                         emissions showed a considerable spatiotemporal variability among 
                         the droughts of 2005, 2010, and 2016, first of them driven by 
                         local conditions in the tropical North Atlantic (TNA), 
                         characterized by warm than normal sea surface waters and the other 
                         two by the El Nino occurrences.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.022",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.022",
                 issn = "0269-7491",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "ribeiro-biomass.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jul. 2021"