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@Article{LennoxGTFBLMAFLMOPSVVB:2018:SeRaSe,
               author = "Lennox, Gareth D. and Gardner, Toby Alan and Thomson, James R. and 
                         Ferreira, Joice and Berenguer, Erika and Lees, Alexander C. and 
                         Mac Nally, Ralph and Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de 
                         and Ferraz, Silvio F. B. and Louzada, Julio and Moura, 
                         N{\'a}rgila G. and Oliveira, Victor H. F. and Pardini, Renata and 
                         Solar, Ricardo R. C. and Vaz de Mello, Fernando Z. and Vieira, Ima 
                         C. G. and Barlow, Jos",
          affiliation = "{Lancaster University} and {Stockholm Environment Institute} and 
                         {University of Canberra} and {EMBRAPA Amaz{\^o}nia Oriental} and 
                         {Lancaster University} and {Manchester Metropolitan University} 
                         and {University of Canberra} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA)} and {Museu Paraense 
                         Em{\'{\i}}lio Goeldi} and {Universidade Federal de Lavras 
                         (UFLA)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT)} and {Museu Paraense Em{\'{\i}}lio 
                         Goeldi} and {Lancaster University}",
                title = "Second rate or a second chance? assessing biomass and biodiversity 
                         recovery in regenerating Amazonian forests",
              journal = "Global Change Biology",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "24",
               number = "12",
                pages = "5680--5694",
                month = "Dec.",
             keywords = "Amazon, biodiversity, biomass, carbon, forest succession, 
                         secondary forests, species composition, species richness.",
             abstract = "Secondary forests (SFs) regenerating on previously deforested land 
                         account for large, expanding areas of tropical forest cover. Given 
                         that tropical forests rank among Earth's most important reservoirs 
                         of carbon and biodiversity, SFs play an increasingly pivotal role 
                         in the carbon cycle and as potential habitat for forest biota. 
                         Nevertheless, their capacity to regain the biotic attributes of 
                         undisturbed primary forests (UPFs) remains poorly understood. 
                         Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of SF recovery, using 
                         extensive tropical biodiversity, biomass, and environmental 
                         datasets. These data, collected in 59 naturally regenerating SFs 
                         and 30 co-located UPFs in the eastern Amazon, cover >1,600 large- 
                         and small-stemmed plant, bird, and dung beetles species and a 
                         suite of forest structure, landscape context, and topoedaphic 
                         predictors. After up to 40 years of regeneration, the SFs we 
                         surveyed showed a high degree of biodiversity resilience, 
                         recovering, on average among taxa, 88% and 85% mean UPF species 
                         richness and composition, respectively. Across the first 20 years 
                         of succession, the period for which we have accurate SF age data, 
                         biomass recovered at 1.2% per year, equivalent to a carbon uptake 
                         rate of 2.25 Mg/ha per year, while, on average, species richness 
                         and composition recovered at 2.6% and 2.3% per year, respectively. 
                         For all taxonomic groups, biomass was strongly associated with SF 
                         species distributions. However, other variables describing habitat 
                         complexity-canopy cover and understory stem density-were equally 
                         important occurrence predictors for most taxa. Species responses 
                         to biomass revealed a successional transition at approximately 75 
                         Mg/ha, marking the influx of high-conservation-value forest 
                         species. Overall, our results show that naturally regenerating SFs 
                         can accumulate substantial amounts of carbon and support many 
                         forest species. However, given that the surveyed SFs failed to 
                         return to a typical UPF state, SFs are not substitutes for UPFs.",
                  doi = "10.1111/gcb.14443",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14443",
                 issn = "1354-1013",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "lennox_secondary.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"
}


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