author = "Fan, Jiwen and Rosenfeld, Daniel and Zhang, Yuwei and Giangrande, 
                         Scott E. and Li, Zhanqing and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and 
                         Martin, Scot T. and Yang, Yan and Wang, Jian and Artaxo, Paulo and 
                         Barbosa, Henrique M. and Braga, Ramon Campos",
          affiliation = "{Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and {Hebrew University of 
                         Jerusalem} and {University of Maryland College Park} and 
                         {Brookhaven National Laboratory} and {University of Maryland 
                         College Park} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Harvard University} and {Beijing Municipal Weather 
                         Modification Office} and {Brookhaven Natl Lab} and {Universidade 
                         de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         (USP)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine 
                         aerosol particles",
                 year = "2018",
         organization = "AGU Fall Meeting",
             abstract = "Aerosol-cloud interactions remain the largest uncertainty in 
                         climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles smaller than 50 
                         nanometers (UAP<50) can be abundant in the troposphere, but are 
                         conventionally considered too small to affect cloud formation. 
                         Observational evidence and numerical simulations of deep 
                         convective clouds (DCCs) over the Amazon show that DCCs forming in 
                         a low aerosol environment can develop very large vapor 
                         supersaturation because fast droplet coalescence reduces 
                         integrated droplet surface area and subsequent condensation. 
                         UAP<50 from pollution plumes that are ingested into such clouds 
                         can be activated to form additional cloud droplets on which excess 
                         supersaturation condenses and forms additional cloud water and 
                         latent heating, thus intensifying convective strength and 
                         precipitation. This mechanism suggests a strong anthropogenic 
                         invigoration of DCCs in previously pristine regions of the 
  conference-location = "Washington, D. C.",
      conference-year = "10-14 dec.",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "fan_substantial.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "11 maio 2021"