author = "Almeida, Dalva Alves de Lima and Couto, Andrea Boldarini and 
                         Oishi, Silvia Sizuka and Ferreira, Neiden{\^e}i Gomes",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Chemical and electrochemical treatment effects on the morphology, 
                         structure, and electrochemical performance of carbon fiber with 
                         different graphitization indexes",
              journal = "Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "22",
               number = "11",
                pages = "3493--3505",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "Carbon fiber, Oxidative treatment, Supercapacitor.",
             abstract = "he association of capacitive charging of the double-layer and a 
                         faradic redox reaction is desirable on carbon fiber (CF) when 
                         oxygen functional groups or other heteroatoms are present on its 
                         surface enhancing its capacitive properties. In this work, a 
                         systematic study of carbon fiber produced at three different heat 
                         treatment temperatures (HTT) of 1000, 1500, and 2000 degrees C was 
                         performed upon two approaches: middle (chemical) and severe 
                         (electrochemical) oxidative treatments. Morphological, structural, 
                         and surface chemical changes were investigated by field emission 
                         gun-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman 
                         spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. 
                         Electrochemical responses were analyzed by galvanostatic 
                         charge/discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and 
                         cyclic voltammetry. Raman results showed that the electrochemical 
                         oxidation promoted structural variation on CF samples 
                         independently of their HTT. Concerning the specific capacitance, 
                         the results indicated that chemical treatment was more effective 
                         for CF1000 than those for CF1500 and CF2000. This behavior may be 
                         attributed to higher amount of oxygen on its surface as well as 
                         its lower structural ordering. Otherwise, for CF1000, the 
                         electrochemical treatment increased its resistivity. However, for 
                         CF1500 and CF2000, which present higher graphitization levels and 
                         less heteroatom contents, greater capacitance values were observed 
                         after their electrochemical oxidative treatment.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s10008-018-4037-5",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10008-018-4037-5",
                 issn = "1432-8488",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "almeida-chemical.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"