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@Article{LiLuMoCaDuMa:2019:ExDeAg,
               author = "Li, Guiying and Lu, Dengsheng and Moran, Em{\'{\i}}lio and 
                         Calvi, Miqu{\'e}ias Freitas and Dutra, Luciano Vieira and 
                         Matistella, Mateus",
          affiliation = "Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Subtropical Resources and 
                         Environment, Fujian Normal University and Fujian Provincial Key 
                         Laboratory for Subtropical Resources and Environment, Fujian 
                         Normal University and {Michigan State University} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Par{\'a} (UFPA)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa 
                         Agropecu{\'a}ria (EMBRAPA)}",
                title = "Examining deforestation and agropasture dynamics along the 
                         Brazilian TransAmazon Highway using multitemporal Landsat 
                         imagery",
              journal = "GIScience \& Remote Sensing",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "56",
               number = "2",
                pages = "161--183",
             keywords = "deforestation, secondary forest, agropasture expansion, 
                         TransAmazon, multitemporal Landsat imagery, human-induced 
                         factors.",
             abstract = "This research aims to understand the difference of major 
                         land-cover change results caused in various time periods and to 
                         examine the impacts of human-induced factors on land-cover changes 
                         along the TransAmazon Highway region. The Landsat Thematic Mapper 
                         and Operational Land Imager data from 2011, 2014, and 2017 and our 
                         previous land-cover classification results in 1991, 2000, and 2008 
                         were used to examine land-cover dynamics. A classification system 
                         consisting of five land-cover classes primary forest (PF), 
                         secondary forest (SF), agropasture (AP), urban area, and water 
                         were chosen. The hierarchical-based classification method was used 
                         to generate land-cover classification results, and the 
                         post-classification comparison approach was used to produce 
                         detailed from-to conversions for each detection period. The 
                         emphasis was on deforestation of PF, dynamic change of SF and AP, 
                         and urbanization over time. The impacts of human-induced factors 
                         such as population and economic conditions on urban expansion, AP 
                         expansion, and deforestation were examined. This research 
                         indicated that selection of a suitable time period was critical 
                         for effectively detecting land-cover changes; that is, too long 
                         time period (i.e., 9 years) cannot accurately capture some 
                         land-cover changes such as the AP and SF in this research. 
                         Although deforestation the conversion from PF to SF and AP 
                         accounted for a large proportion of land-cover changes, the 
                         changes between SF and AP became more important than PF 
                         conversion, and required a short time period (i.e., 3 years here) 
                         for effectively reflecting their dynamics. Human-induced factors 
                         play important roles in deforestation, dynamic changes between AP 
                         and SF, and urbanization.",
                  doi = "10.1080/15481603.2018.1497438",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15481603.2018.1497438",
                 issn = "1548-1603",
           targetfile = "li_examining.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"
}


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