author = "Moraes, Nicolas Perciani and Bacetto, Let{\'{\i}}cia Araujo and 
                         Santos, Gabriela Spirandelli dos and Silva, Maria Lucia Caetano 
                         Pinto da and Machado, Jo{\~a}o Paulo Barros and Campos, Tiago 
                         Moreira Bastos and Thim, Gilmar Patroc{\'{\i}}nio and Rodrigues, 
                         Liana Alvares",
          affiliation = "{Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} 
                         and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Tecnol{\'o}gico de 
                         Aeron{\'a}utica (ITA)} and {Instituto Tecnol{\'o}gico de 
                         Aeron{\'a}utica (ITA)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                title = "Synthesis of novel ZnO/carbon xerogel composites: Effect of carbon 
                         content and calcination temperature on their structural and 
                         photocatalytic properties",
              journal = "Ceramics International",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "45",
               number = "3",
                pages = "3657--3667",
                month = "Feb.",
             keywords = "Zinc oxide, Photocatalysis, Carbon xerogel, Tannin, Methylene 
             abstract = "This paper reports the development of new ZnO/carbon xerogel 
                         composites (XZn w) for photocatalytic applications. The use of 
                         black wattle tannin as a precursor to the carbon xerogel aimed at 
                         reducing costs and environmental impacts. The composites were 
                         characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), BET 
                         surface area, scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), X-ray 
                         photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy 
                         (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). 
                         The photocatalytic performance of the materials was evaluated in 
                         the decomposition process of methylene blue, a known toxic 
                         pollutant. The impacts of the catalyst dosage and calcination 
                         temperature on the photocatalytic process were also examined 
                         systematically. The X-ray profiles of the XZn w evidenced the 
                         existence of the hexagonal structure of the zinc oxide (wurtzite) 
                         in the composites. The XPS and XRD analyses confirmed the 
                         incorporation of carbon in the zinc oxide crystalline structure. 
                         The higher carbon content resulted in a larger surface area. All 
                         composites presented the ability to absorb radiation in less 
                         energetic wavelengths, contrary to pure zinc oxide that only 
                         absorbs radiation of wavelengths below 420 nm. The optimal dosage 
                         and calcination temperature were found to be 0.2 g L\−1 and 
                         300 C. All the developed composites displayed significant 
                         photocatalytic activities in the decomposition of methylene blue 
                         under both visible and solar light. The composites had superior 
                         photocatalytic efficiency under visible light when compared to 
                         pure zinc oxide. The XZn 0.5 presented the best degradation 
                         efficiency under visible radiation. All materials presented 
                         similar photocatalytic responses under solar light, evidencing the 
                         synergy between the carbon xerogel and the zinc oxide. The 
                         photocatalytic mechanism was evaluated by trapping experiments to 
                         be mainly controlled by the electron vacancies that are generated 
                         during the photoexcitation of the composites.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.11.027",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.11.027",
                 issn = "0272-8842",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "moraes_synthesis.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "14 abr. 2021"