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@MastersThesis{Petri:2019:AvDaMO,
               author = "Petri, Caio Arlanche",
                title = "Avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o de dados MODIS (MAIAC) corrigidos e 
                         n{\~a}o-corrigidos para efeitos bidirecionais na Amaz{\^o}nia",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2019",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2019-02-13",
             keywords = "MODIS, efeitos bidirecionais, s{\'e}ries temporais, 
                         {\'{\i}}ndices de vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o, MODIS, bidirectional 
                         effects, time series, vegetation indices.",
             abstract = "Estudos de florestas tropicais da Amaz{\^o}nia t{\^e}m se 
                         beneficiado da s{\'e}rie temporal relativamente longa de 
                         {\'{\i}}ndices de vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o (IVs) produzida pelo 
                         sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). 
                         Entretanto, por ser um sensor com amplo campo de visada, as 
                         s{\'e}ries temporais s{\~a}o afetadas por efeitos bidirecionais, 
                         mesmo quando produtos compostos de 16 dias s{\~a}o utilizados. O 
                         objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a magnitude dos efeitos 
                         bidirecionais na Amaz{\^o}nia sobre a determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         sete IVs e da reflect{\^a}ncia das respectivas bandas do MODIS 
                         que comp{\~o}em estes {\'{\i}}ndices. O Cerrado foi usado como 
                         {\'a}rea de refer{\^e}ncia para compara{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos 
                         resultados. Usando o algoritmo MAIAC (Multi-Angle Implementation 
                         of Atmospheric Correction) para corre{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos efeitos 
                         atmosf{\'e}ricos e de BRDF, sete IVs foram calculados explorando 
                         diferentes intervalos espectrais e significados 
                         biof{\'{\i}}sicos: EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index), GRND 
                         (Green-Red Vegetation Index), NDII (Normalized Difference Infrared 
                         Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDWI 
                         (Nomalized Difference Water Index), PRI (Photochemical Reflectance 
                         Index) e SWND (SWIR Normalized Difference). Para a an{\'a}lise 
                         comparativa dos fatores potencialmente causadores de efeitos BRDF 
                         na Amaz{\^o}nia e no Cerrado, foram avaliados dados de 
                         {\^a}ngulo zenital de visada (AZV), {\^a}ngulo zenital solar 
                         (AZS), {\^a}ngulo azimutal relativo (AAR) e dire{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         de imageamento, al{\'e}m das condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         atmosf{\'e}ricas no momento de aquisi{\c{c}}{\~a}o das imagens 
                         (qualidade radiom{\'e}trica dos pixels). Para an{\'a}lise dos 
                         efeitos BRDF sobre a reflect{\^a}ncia e IVs, foram consideradas 
                         mudan{\c{c}}as percentuais relativas, testes 
                         n{\~a}o-param{\'e}tricos (Mann-Whitney U), m{\'e}tricas de 
                         Cohen e dist{\^a}ncias angulares entre dados corrigidos e 
                         n{\~a}o-corrigidos. Finalmente, ap{\'o}s corre{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         BRDF, comparou-se o comportamento sazonal dos sete IVs entre si, 
                         usando tamb{\'e}m dados de GPP (Gross Primary Production) e LUE 
                         (Light Use Efficiency) de tr{\^e}s torres de fluxo na 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia (Bel{\'e}m, Manaus e Santar{\'e}m). Os principais 
                         resultados mostraram que: (a) As condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         atmosf{\'e}ricas de observa{\c{c}}{\~a}o na Amaz{\^o}nia 
                         tornam este ecossistema mais suscet{\'{\i}}vel a efeitos BRDF 
                         quando comparado com {\'a}reas de Cerrado, mesmo considerando as 
                         mudan{\c{c}}as sazonais mais fortes na vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         sav{\^a}nica; (b) O EVI e o PRI foram os IVs mais 
                         sens{\'{\i}}veis aos efeitos BRDF, em uma avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         conjunta das an{\'a}lises estat{\'{\i}}sticas adotadas; (c) 
                         EVI, NDII e NDWI acompanharam os dados de GPP de torres de fluxo 
                         na Amaz{\^o}nia, durante a esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o seca, mas nem 
                         todos os IVs mostraram resposta biof{\'{\i}}sica consistente 
                         entre si. De forma geral, o presente estudo contribui para uma 
                         melhor compreens{\~a}o dos efeitos BRDF sobre a reflect{\^a}ncia 
                         de bandas e IVs do MODIS. ABSTRACT: Studies of tropical 
                         rainforests from the Amazon have benefited from the relatively 
                         long time series of vegetation indices (VIs) produced by the MODIS 
                         (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. However, 
                         because MODIS is a sensor with a large field of view, the time 
                         series is affected by bidirectional effects, even when 16-day 
                         composite products are used. The objective of this work was to 
                         analyse the magnitude of the bidirectional effects in Amazonia on 
                         the determination of seven VIs and on the reflectance of the 
                         respective MODIS bands that compose these indices. The savannas 
                         from the Brazilian Cerrado were used as reference areas for 
                         comparison of results. Using the MAIAC (Multi-Angle Implementation 
                         of Atmospheric Correction) for the correction of atmospheric and 
                         BRDF effects, seven VIs were calculated by exploring different 
                         spectral ranges and biophysical meanings: EVI (Enhanced Vegetation 
                         Index), GRND (Green-Red Vegetation Index), NDII (Normalized 
                         Difference Infrared Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation 
                         Index), NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index), PRI 
                         (Photochemical Reflectance Index) and SWND (ShortWave infrared 
                         Normalized Difference). For the comparative analysis of the 
                         factors that could cause BRDF effects in the Amazon and the 
                         Cerrado, view zenith angle (VZA), solar zenith angle (SZA), 
                         relative azimuth angle (RAA), viewing direction and atmospheric 
                         conditions during image acquisition (radiometric quality of the 
                         pixels) were evaluated. For the analysis of BRDF effects on 
                         reflectance and VIs, relative percentage changes, non-parametric 
                         (Mann-Whitney U) tests, Cohen metrics and angular distances 
                         between corrected and uncorrected data were considered. Finally, 
                         after BRDF correction, the seasonal behaviors of the seven VIs 
                         were compared to each other, also using GPP (Gross Primary 
                         Production) and LUE (Light Use Efficiency) data from three 
                         Amazonian flux towers (Bel{\'e}m, Manaus and Santar{\'e}m). The 
                         main results showed that: (a) The atmospheric conditions in the 
                         Amazon make this ecosystem more susceptible to BRDF effects than 
                         the Cerrado, even considering the stronger seasonal changes 
                         observed in the savanna-like vegetation; (b) EVI and PRI were the 
                         most sensitive VIs to BRDF effects in a joint evaluation of the 
                         adopted statistical analyses; (c) EVI, NDII and NDWI followed the 
                         GPP pattern observed in flux towers of the Amazon during the dry 
                         season, but some VIs did not show consistent biophysical response 
                         to each other. In general, this study contributes for better 
                         understanding the BRDF effects on the reflectance of bands and VIs 
                         of MODIS.",
            committee = "Ponzoni, Fl{\'a}vio Jorge (presidente) and Galv{\~a}o, 
                         L{\^e}nio Soares (orientador) and Renn{\'o}, Camilo Daleles and 
                         Breuning, F{\'a}bio Marcelo",
         englishtitle = "Evaluation of MODIS data (MAIAC) data corrected and noncorrected 
                         for bidirectional effects in the Amazon",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "97",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3SK3KRB",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3SK3KRB",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "02 dez. 2020"
}


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