author = "Vasconcelos, Luiz Eduardo Guarino de and Leite, Nelson Paiva 
                         Oliveira and Kusumoto, Andr{\'e} Yoshimi and Roberto, Leandro and 
                         Lopes, Cristina Moniz Ara{\'u}jo",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (IPEV)} and {Instituto de Pesquisas 
                         e Ensaios em Voo (IPEV)} and {Instituto de Estudos 
                         Avan{\c{c}}ados (IEAv)} and {Instituto Tecnol{\'o}gico de 
                         Aeron{\'a}utica (ITA)}",
                title = "Store separation: photogrammetric solution for the static ejection 
              journal = "International Journal of Aerospace Engineering",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "2019",
               number = "6708450",
             abstract = "The process of developing and certifying aircraft and aeronautical 
                         systems requires the execution of experimental flight test 
                         campaigns to determine the actual characteristics of the system 
                         being developed and/or validated. In this process, there are many 
                         campaigns that are inherently dangerous, such as the store 
                         separation. In this particular case, the greatest risk is the 
                         collision of the store with the fuselage of the aircraft. To 
                         mitigate the risks of this campaign, it is necessary to compare 
                         the actual trajectory of a separation with its simulated 
                         estimates. With such information, it is possible to decide whether 
                         the next store release can be done with the required safety and/or 
                         whether the model used to estimate the separation trajectory is 
                         valid or not. Consequently, exact determination of the trajectory 
                         of the separation is necessary. Store separation is a strategic, 
                         relevant, and complex process for all nations. The two main 
                         techniques for determining the quantitative store trajectory data 
                         with 6DoF (six degrees of freedom) are photogrammetry and 
                         instrumented telemetry packages (data obtained from inertial 
                         sensors that are installed in the store). Each presents advantages 
                         and disadvantages. In regard to photogrammetry, several market 
                         solutions can be used to perform these tests. However, the result 
                         of the separation trajectory is only obtained after the test 
                         flight, and therefore, it is not possible to safely carry out more 
                         than one on the same flight. In this context, the development and 
                         validation of a solution that will allow the realization of near 
                         real-time separation analysis are in fact an innovative and 
                         original work. This paper discusses the development and 
                         validation, through actual static ejection tests, of the 
                         components that will compose a new onboard optical trajectory 
                         system for use in store separation campaigns. This solution 
                         includes the implementation of a three-dimensional (3D) 
                         calibration field that allows calibration of the optical assembly 
                         with just one photo per optical assembly, development of a 
                         complete analytical model for camera calibration, and development 
                         of specific software for identification and tracking of targets in 
                         two-dimensional (2D) coordinate images and three-dimensional (3D) 
                         coordinate trajectory calculation. In relation to the calibration, 
                         the analytical model is based on a pinhole type camera and 
                         considers its intrinsic parameters. This allowed for a mean square 
                         error smaller than +/- 3.9 pixels @1 sigma. The 3D analysis 
                         software for 6DoF trajectory expression was developed using 
                         photogrammetry techniques and absolute orientation. The 
                         uncertainty associated with the position measurement of each of 
                         the markers varies from +/- 0.02mm to +/- 8.00mm @1 sigma, 
                         depending on the geometry of the viewing angles. The experiments 
                         were carried out at IPEV (Flight Test Research Institute)/Brazil, 
                         and the results were considered satisfactory. We advocate that the 
                         knowledge gained through this research contributes to the 
                         development of new methods that permit almost real-time analysis 
                         in store separation tests.",
                  doi = "10.1155/2019/6708450",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6708450",
                 issn = "1687-5966",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "15 abr. 2021"