author = "Gomes, Luciene and Sim{\~o}es, Silvio J. C. and Dalla Nora, Eloi 
                         Lennon and Sousa Neto, Er{\'a}clito Rodrigues de and Forti, Maria 
                         Cristina and Ometto, Jean Pierre Henry Balbaud",
          affiliation = "{University of Leeds} and {Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Agricultural expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado: Increased soil 
                         and nutrient losses and decreased agricultural productivity",
              journal = "Land",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "8",
               number = "1",
                pages = "e12",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "soil erosion, land use change, food production, food security, 
                         crop productivity, nitrogen, phosphorus, Brazil, RUSLE, GIS.",
             abstract = "While food and nutrition security are issues that national and 
                         international organizations are tackling, one of the central 
                         problems often overlooked is the essential role of soils in 
                         providing nutritious food. Soils are the base for food production 
                         and food security. However, the majority of soils are in fair and 
                         poor conditions, with the most significant threats being erosion 
                         and loss of nutrients. In this study, we estimate the potential of 
                         soil loss, agricultural productivity loss, and nutrient loss for 
                         Brazils most important agricultural region, the Brazilian Cerrado, 
                         for the years 2000 and 2012. For this, we applied the Revised 
                         Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model integrated with a 
                         geographical information system (GIS) to estimate annual soil loss 
                         rate and agricultural productivity loss, and used total nitrogen 
                         and total phosphorus in soil to estimate the annual nutrient loss 
                         rate caused by soil loss. All model factors and data were obtained 
                         from the literature. The results show that agricultural expansion 
                         in the Brazilian Cerrado is increasing the area of severe erosion, 
                         occasioning agricultural productivity decrease and soil nutrient 
                         depletion. The annual soil loss rate increased from 10.4 (2000) to 
                         12.0 Mg ha\−1 yr\−1 (2012). Agricultural 
                         productivity loss occurred in more than 3 million hectares of 
                         crops and silviculture in 2000 and in more than 5.5 million 
                         hectares in 2012. Severely eroded areas lost between 13.1 and 25.9 
                         times more nutrients than areas with low and moderate soil loss 
                         rates. These findings show that government policy should be 
                         directed to ensure the sustainable use of soils, mainly in 
                         agriculturally consolidated regions of the Brazilian Cerrado.",
                  doi = "10.3390/land8010012",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/land8010012",
                 issn = "2073-445X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "gomes_agricultural.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "14 abr. 2021"