author = "Sapucci, Luiz Fernando and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and Souza, 
                         Eniuce Menezes de and Campos, Thamiris Brand{\~a}o",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Estadual 
                         de Maring{\'a} (UEM)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Global Positioning System precipitable water vapour (GPS-PWV) 
                         jumps before intense rain events: A potential application to 
              journal = "Meteorological Applications",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "26",
               number = "1",
                pages = "49--63",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "nowcasting, PWV-GPS, PWV jumps, severe precipitation.",
             abstract = "A rapid increase in atmospheric water vapour is a fundamental 
                         ingredient for many intense rainfall events. 
                         High\‐frequency precipitable water vapour (PWV) estimates 
                         (1 min) from a Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorological site 
                         are evaluated in this paper for intense rainfall events during the 
                         CHUVA Vale field campaign in Brazil (November and December 2011) 
                         in which precipitation events of differing intensities and spatial 
                         dimensions, as observed by an X\‐band radar, were explored. 
                         A sharp increase in the GPS\‐PWV before the more intense 
                         events was found and termed GPS\‐PWV jumps. These jumps are 
                         probably associated with water vapour convergence and the 
                         continued formation of cloud condensate and precipitation 
                         particles. A wavelet correlation analysis between the high 
                         temporal\‐resolution GPS\‐PWV time series and 
                         rainfall events evaluated in this study shows that there are 
                         oscillations in the PWV time series correlated with the more 
                         intense rainfall events. These oscillations are on scales related 
                         to periods from about 32 to 64\ min (associated with 
                         GPS\‐PWV jumps) and from 16 to 34\ min (associated 
                         with positive pulses of the PWV). The GPS\‐PWV 
                         time\‐derivative histogram for the time window before the 
                         rainfall event reveals different distributions influenced by 
                         positive pulses of the GPS\‐PWV (derivative > 
                         9.5\ mm/hr) for higher intensity and extension events. 
                         These features are indicative of the occurrence of intense 
                         precipitation and, consequently, have the potential for 
                         application in nowcasting activities.",
                  doi = "10.1002/met.1735",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/met.1735",
                 issn = "1350-4827",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "sapucci_global.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"