author = "Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Day-to-day and short-term variabilities in the equatorial plasma 
                         bubble/spread F irregularity seeding and development",
              journal = "Progress in Earth and Planetary Science",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "6",
               number = "1",
                pages = "e11",
                month = "Dec.",
             keywords = "Equatorial ionosphere, Plasma bubbles/spread F irregularities, 
                         Prereversal vertical drift, Prompt penetration electric field, 
                         Gravity waves, Trans-equatorial wind, Planetary/Kelvin waves, 
                         ESF/EPB short-term variability.",
             abstract = "The background ionospheric conditions shaped by sunset 
                         electrodynamic processes are responsible for the development of 
                         equatorial plasma bubble (EPB)/equatorial spread F (ESF) 
                         irregularities of the post-sunset ionosphere. Distinct conditions 
                         exist for the EPB/ESF development also at later hours of the 
                         night. The plasma instability growth leading to EPB generation is 
                         dependent on the basic precursor conditions defined by the 
                         well-known parameters: the evening prereversal enhancement in 
                         vertical plasma drift (PRE), wave structure in plasma density and 
                         polarization electric field required to initiate/seed the 
                         instability, and the F layer bottom side density gradient, as a 
                         significant factor in controlling the growth rate. Competing roles 
                         of the zonal versus meridional thermospheric winds additionally 
                         control their development. Statistical as well as case studies 
                         have addressed aspects of the EPB development and occurrence under 
                         different geophysical conditions, generally focusing attention on 
                         any one of the above specific parameters. Little is known 
                         regarding the relative importance of concurrent presence of the 
                         precursor parameters (mentioned above) in shaping a given event. A 
                         large degree of day-to-day variability in these parameters arise 
                         from different sources of forcing, such as upward propagating 
                         atmospheric waves, and magnetic disturbance time electric fields 
                         in the form of prompt penetration and disturbance dynamo electric 
                         fields that often contribute to the widely observed short-term 
                         variabilities in EPB development and dynamics. In this paper, we 
                         will present and discuss some important aspects of the EPB/ ESF 
                         short-term variability, focusing attention on their enhanced 
                         development, or suppression and, wherever possible, highlighting 
                         also the relative roles of the precursor parameters in such 
                  doi = "10.1186/s40645-019-0258-1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40645-019-0258-1",
                 issn = "2197-4284",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "abdu_day.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "13 abr. 2021"