author = "Ribaud, Jean-Fran{\c{c}}ois and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and 
                         Biscaro, Thiago Souza",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "X-band dual-polarization radar-based hydrometeor classification 
                         for Brazilian tropical precipitation systems",
              journal = "Atmospheric Measurement Techniques",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "12",
               number = "2",
                pages = "811--837",
                month = "Feb.",
             keywords = "hydrometeor identification, tropical microphysics, 
                         dual-polarization radar, clustering.",
             abstract = "The dominant hydrometeor types associated with Brazilian tropical 
                         precipitation systems are identified via research X-band 
                         dual-polarization radar deployed in the vicinity of the Manaus 
                         region (Amazonas) during both the GoAmazon2014/5 and 
                         ACRIDICON-CHUVA field experiments. The present study is based on 
                         an agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) approach that makes 
                         use of dual polarimetric radar observables (reflectivity at 
                         horizontal polarization Z(H), differential reflectivity Z(DR), 
                         specific differential-phase K-DP, and correlation coefficient rho 
                         HV) and temperature data inferred from sounding balloons. The 
                         sensitivity of the agglomerative clustering scheme for measuring 
                         the intercluster dissimilarities (linkage criterion) is evaluated 
                         through the wet-season dataset. Both the weighted and Ward 
                         linkages exhibit better abilities to retrieve cloud microphysical 
                         species, whereas clustering outputs associated with the centroid 
                         linkage are poorly defined. The AHC method is then applied to 
                         investigate the microphysical structure of both the wet and dry 
                         seasons. The stratiform regions are composed of five hydrometeor 
                         classes: drizzle, rain, wet snow, aggregates, and ice crystals, 
                         whereas convective echoes are generally associated with light 
                         rain, moderate rain, heavy rain, graupel, aggregates, and ice 
                         crystals. The main discrepancy between the wet and dry seasons is 
                         the presence of both low-and high-density graupel within 
                         convective regions, whereas the rainy period exhibits only one 
                         type of graupel. Finally, aggregate and ice crystal hydrometeors 
                         in the tropics are found to exhibit higher polarimetric values 
                         compared to those at midlatitudes.",
                  doi = "10.5194/amt-12-811-2019",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-811-2019",
                 issn = "1867-1381",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "ribaud_xband.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"