author = "Hern{\'a}ndez Baños, Ivette and Sapucci, Luiz Fernando and 
                         Cucurull, Lidia and Bastarz, Carlos Frederico and Silveira, Bruna 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {NOAA Atlantic 
                         Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Assimilation of GPSRO bending angle profiles into the Brazilian 
                         global atmospheric model",
              journal = "Remote Sensing",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "11",
               number = "3",
                pages = "e256",
                month = "Feb.",
             keywords = "radio occultation data, GPSRO, bending angle, data assimilation, 
                         GSI, numerical weather prediction.",
             abstract = "The Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) 
                         technique allows valuable information to be obtained about the 
                         state of the atmosphere through vertical profiles obtained at 
                         various processing levels. From the point of view of data 
                         assimilation, there is a consensus that less processed data are 
                         preferable because of their lowest addition of uncertainties in 
                         the process. In the GPSRO context, bending angle data are better 
                         to assimilate than refractivity or atmospheric profiles; however, 
                         these data have not been properly explored by data assimilation at 
                         the CPTEC (acronym in Portuguese for Center for Weather Forecast 
                         and Climate Studies). In this study, the benefits and possible 
                         deficiencies of the CPTEC modeling system for this data source are 
                         investigated. Three numerical experiments were conducted, 
                         assimilating bending angles and refractivity profiles in the 
                         Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system coupled with the 
                         Brazilian Global Atmospheric Model (BAM). The results highlighted 
                         the need for further studies to explore the representation of 
                         meteorological systems at the higher levels of the BAM model. 
                         Nevertheless, more benefits were achieved using bending angle data 
                         compared with the results obtained assimilating refractivity 
                         profiles. The highest gain was in the data usage exploring 73.4% 
                         of the potential of the RO technique when bending angles are 
                         assimilated. Additionally, gains of 3.5% and 2.5% were found in 
                         the root mean square error values in the zonal and meridional wind 
                         components and geopotencial height at 250 hPa, respectively.",
                  doi = "10.3390/rs11030256",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs11030256",
                 issn = "2072-4292",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "banos_assimilation.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 abr. 2021"