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@Article{Augusto-SilvaMacRudCorMel:2019:StMiLa,
               author = "Augusto-Silva, P{\'e}tala Bianchi and MacIntyre, Sally and 
                         Rudorff, Conrado de Moraes and Cort{\'e}s, Alicia and Melack, 
                         John Michael",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Marine 
                         Science Institute, University of California and {Centro Nacional 
                         de Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais (CEMADEN)} and 
                         Marine Science Institute, University of California and Marine 
                         Science Institute, University of California",
                title = "Stratification and mixing in large floodplain lakes along the 
                         lower Amazon River",
              journal = "Journal of Great Lakes Research",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "45",
               number = "1",
                pages = "61--72",
                month = "Feb.",
             keywords = "Tropical shallow floodplain lakes, Mixing, Convective cooling, 
                         Wind, Advection.",
             abstract = "Large, shallow lakes are common in the extensive floodplains 
                         throughout the tropics. To determine controls on their mixing 
                         dynamics, we instrumented 5 stations in two shallow, connected 
                         tropical lakes on the lower Amazon floodplain with meteorological 
                         and temperature sensors. A tight relation between changes in 
                         thermal structure and LMO/h (the ratio of the Monin-Obukhov length 
                         scale to the depth of the actively mixing layer) indicates the 
                         sensitivity of thermal structure to wind speed relative to heating 
                         and cooling. Four regimes led to variations in mixing: (i) high 
                         solar radiation with light winds in the mid-morning to early 
                         afternoon resulted in shallow stratification, 
                         0\ <\ LMO/h\ <\ 1; (ii) afternoons 
                         with higher winds caused the diurnal thermocline to downwell and 
                         heat to mix to deeper layers, LMO/h\ >\ 1; (iii) by 
                         late afternoon, buoyancy flux became negative and 
                         LMO/h\ <\ \−1 and with u\∗W and 
                         w\∗ both >0.06\ m\ s\−1, mixing from 
                         wind and cooling co-occurred; and (iv) convection dominated mixing 
                         on nights with light winds, 
                         \−1\ <\ LMO/h\ <\ 0. Pattern 
                         (ii) occurred mid-day if winds were higher. When winds were 
                         intermittent and regime (i) predominated mid-day, changes in heat 
                         content were primarily determined by one dimensional processes of 
                         heating and cooling. When easterly winds were sustained and regime 
                         (ii) occurred mid-day, heat was transported west in the day, and 
                         colder water upwelled to the west or was advected to the west and 
                         north at night. Subtle differences in wind speed determined the 
                         extent to which advection moderated the thermal structure.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.jglr.2018.11.001",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2018.11.001",
                 issn = "0380-1330",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "augusto_stratification.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"
}


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