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@MastersThesis{Duarte:2019:MuCoTe,
               author = "Duarte, Jessyca Fernanda dos Santos",
                title = "Mudan{\c{c}}as da cobertura da terra e transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         florestal no Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2019",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2019-04-05",
             keywords = "Sensoriamento remoto, transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal, 
                         Mudan{\c{c}}as de Uso e Cobertura da Terra (MUCT), cobertura 
                         florestal, remote sensing, forest transition, Land-Use and 
                         Land-Cover Change (LULCC), forest cover.",
             abstract = "As florestas desempenham um importante papel para a 
                         manuten{\c{c}}{\~a}o da biodiversidade. No entanto, as 
                         constantes mudan{\c{c}}as no uso e cobertura da terra ao longo do 
                         tempo levaram a uma grande perda florestal, especialmente na Mata 
                         Atl{\^a}ntica. A transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal postula um 
                         decl{\'{\i}}nio na perda florestal acompanhado pela 
                         regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o, resultando em um aumento l{\'{\i}}quido 
                         na {\'a}rea florestal, podendo ocorrer em combina{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         com outros processos de mudan{\c{c}}as no uso da terra. Devido 
                         {\`a} import{\^a}ncia de se conhecer quais os processos 
                         est{\~a}o associados {\`a} transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal, 
                         diversos estudos vem sendo desenvolvidos integrando t{\'e}cnicas 
                         de Sensoriamento Remoto com dados de censos agropecu{\'a}rios e 
                         demogr{\'a}ficos. Nesse contexto, os objetivos deste trabalho 
                         foram: i) investigar a ocorr{\^e}ncia da transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         florestal em uma {\'a}rea no Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba-SP; ii) 
                         identificar e quantificar {\'a}reas de cobertura florestal, 
                         incluindo {\'a}reas de remanescentes de Mata Atl{\^a}ntica, 
                         regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o e reflorestamento; iii) analisar a 
                         distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial dos fragmentos de remanescentes 
                         e de regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o a rede de 
                         drenagem; e iv) investigar e compreender os principais processos 
                         associados {\`a}s mudan{\c{c}}as da cobertura florestal. 
                         Primeiro, foram gerados os mapas de cobertura florestal para os 
                         anos de 1995, 2006 e 2018 utilizando imagens do sat{\'e}lite 
                         Landsat. A s{\'e}rie temporal de imagens (1975 a 2018) auxiliou a 
                         elucidar d{\'u}vidas na discrimina{\c{c}}{\~a}o das classes de 
                         cobertura florestal. Em seguida, foram realizadas 
                         p{\'o}s-classifica{\c{c}}{\~o}es e edi{\c{c}}{\~o}es dos 
                         mapas para identifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o das {\'a}reas de 
                         regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o. Ap{\'o}s valida{\c{c}}{\~a}o das 
                         classifica{\c{c}}{\~o}es, foram gerados os mapas de 
                         transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal para os per{\'{\i}}odos 
                         1995-2006 e 2006-2018. Os resultados mostraram que entre 1995 e 
                         2018, as {\'a}reas de fragmentos de remanescentes de Mata 
                         Atl{\^a}ntica reduziram-se em 10%, enquanto as {\'a}reas de 
                         reflorestamento e de regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o cresceram em 142% e 
                         4157%, respectivamente. O reflorestamento contribuiu com a maior 
                         parte dos ganhos de cobertura florestal, representando 6% da 
                         {\'a}rea de estudo em 2018. A {\'a}rea de cobertura florestal 
                         total correspondeu a 25% da {\'a}rea de estudo no 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo 1995-2006, e 28% em 2006-2018. A an{\'a}lise da 
                         distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial dos fragmentos revelou que 
                         aproximadamente 70% dos fragmentos de remanescentes e de 
                         regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o estavam situados entre 50 e 200 m dos 
                         leitos dos rios, sugerindo que a preserva{\c{c}}{\~a}o e 
                         recupera{\c{c}}{\~a}o das matas de galeria merecem uma maior 
                         aten{\c{c}}{\~a}o para cumprimento da Lei Nš 12.651 do 
                         C{\'o}digo Florestal. A an{\'a}lise dos censos mostrou que a 
                         {\'a}rea de estudo {\'e} marcada por diferentes l{\'o}gicas, 
                         resumindo: i) {\'a}reas onde os processos de 
                         industrializa{\c{c}}{\~a}o e urbaniza{\c{c}}{\~a}o s{\~a}o 
                         mais relevantes, o reflorestamento {\'e} um processo importante 
                         para a transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal; ii) {\'a}reas com menor 
                         desenvolvimento econ{\^o}mico apresentam {\'a}reas extensas e 
                         conectadas de remanescentes florestais, onde vem ocorrendo 
                         {\^e}xodo rural e processos de regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o. As 
                         evid{\^e}ncias sugerem que est{\'a} ocorrendo uma 
                         transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal na {\'a}rea de estudo, a qual 
                         est{\'a} mais associada aos processos de reflorestamento do que 
                         {\`a} regenera{\c{c}}{\~a}o. ABSTRACT: Forests play an 
                         important role in maintaining biodiversity. However, the constant 
                         changes in land use and land cover over time have led to a major 
                         forest loss, especially in the Atlantic Forest biome. The forest 
                         transition theory postulates a decline in forest loss accompanied 
                         by regeneration, resulting in a net increase in forest area and 
                         may occur in combination with other land use change processes. Due 
                         to the importance of understanding which processes are associated 
                         with the forest transition, several studies have been developed 
                         integrating Remote Sensing techniques with agricultural and 
                         demographic censuses data. Thus, the objectives of this study 
                         were: i) to investigate the occurrence of forest transition in an 
                         area in the Para{\'{\i}}ba Valley-SP; ii) to identify and to 
                         quantify areas of forest physiognomy, including areas of remnants 
                         of Atlantic Forest, regeneration and reforestation; iii) to 
                         analyze the spatial distribution of the remaining fragments and 
                         regeneration in relation to the drainage network; and iv) 
                         investigate and understand the main processes associated with 
                         changes in forest cover. First, the forest cover maps were 
                         generated for the years 1995, 2006 and 2018 using images from the 
                         Landsat satellite. Imagery time-series (1975 to 2018) supported to 
                         elucidate doubts in the discrimination of forest physiognomy 
                         classes. Then, post-classifications and editions of the maps were 
                         made to identify regeneration areas. After validation of the 
                         classifications, forest transition maps were generated for the 
                         periods 1995-2006 and 2006-2018. The results showed that, between 
                         1995 and 2018, the remnant fragments of Atlantic Forest areas were 
                         reduced by 10%, while reforestation and regeneration areas 
                         increased by 142% and 4157%, respectively. Reforestation 
                         contributed most of the gains from forest cover, accounting for 6% 
                         of the study area in 2018. The total forest cover area 
                         corresponded to 25% of the study area in the period 1995-2006, and 
                         28% in 2006-2018. The spatial distribution analysis of the 
                         fragments revealed that approximately 70% of the remnant and 
                         regeneration fragments were located between 50 and 200 m from the 
                         river beds, suggesting that the preservation and recovery of 
                         gallery forests deserve greater attention in compliance with Law 
                         12.651/12 of the Brazilian Forest Code. The analysis of the 
                         censuses showed that the area of study is marked by different 
                         logics, summarizing: i) areas where processes of industrialization 
                         and urbanization are most relevant, reforestation is an important 
                         process for forest transition; ii) areas with less economic 
                         development present extensive and connected areas of forest 
                         remnants, where rural exodus and regeneration processes have 
                         occurred. Evidences suggest that a forest transition is occurring 
                         in the study area, which is more associated with reforestation 
                         processes than with regeneration.",
            committee = "Sanches, Ieda Del'Arco (presidente) and Alves, Di{\'o}genes Salas 
                         (orientador) and K{\"o}rting, Thales Sehn and Costa, Sandra Maria 
                         Fonseca da",
         englishtitle = "Changes in land cover and forest transition in the 
                         Para{\'{\i}}ba Valley",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "142",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3SUDTK2",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3SUDTK2",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 nov. 2020"
}


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