author = "Batista, Carlos Leandro Gomes and Weller, Anderson Coelho and 
                         Martins, Eliane and Mattiello Francisco, Maria de F{\'a}tima",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)} and {Universidade 
                         Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Towards increasing nanosatellite subsystem robustness",
              journal = "Acta Astronautica",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "156",
                pages = "187--196",
                month = "Mar.",
             keywords = "Fault injection, Robustness, Testing, Verification and validation, 
                         Nanosatellite, Cubesat, Integration, MIL.",
             abstract = "Short development life cycle and low cost of cubesat-based mission 
                         have motivated the growing number of nanosatellite launched in the 
                         last decade around the world. Fast and cheaper space project do 
                         not guarantee success in orbit. The lack of good practices on 
                         design, assembly and tests has been pointed out as one of the 
                         major causes to nanosatellite mission failures. Efforts on the use 
                         of verification and validation techniques are required. Because 
                         the increased use of nanosatellites missions for technology 
                         qualification of payloads on orbit, faulty behavior of those 
                         payloads can be expected. However, such malfunction shall not 
                         represent a risk to the whole mission. Robustness is an important 
                         property of reactive critical system not addressed properly in the 
                         cubesat standardization. Although significant mitigation of the 
                         interface failures has been observed at hardware level in the 
                         integration phase of the payloads with the nanosatellite platform, 
                         behavior aspects of the communicating subsystems on the use of 
                         these interfaces shall be verified. The test systematization of 
                         CubeSat-based nanosatellites supported by proper tools is 
                         necessary to reduce the mission development cycle in terms of the 
                         time consumed by the verification \& validation activities. In 
                         this paper we present a failure emulator mechanism framework, 
                         named FEM, for robustness testing of interoperable 
                         software-intensive subsystems onboard nanosatellite. FEM acts in 
                         the communication channel being part of the integration test 
                         workbench in two phases of nanosatellite design: (i) robustness 
                         requirement specification using model in the loop (MIL) and (ii) 
                         robustness validation using hardware in the loop (HIL). The 
                         architectural aspects of the proposed FEM framework support its 
                         instantiation to any communication channel of the CubeSat 
                         standard. As an example, FEM prototype was instantiated to I 2 C 
                         communication channel to support NanosatC-BR2 testing. 
                         NanosatC-BR2 is a Cubesat based scientific mission, under 
                         development and integration at Brazilian Institute for Space 
                         Research (INPE), which uses I 2 C communication channel for its 
                         payloads interactions with the On-Board Data Handling computer 
                         subsystem (OBC). FEM prototype was used to support OBC integration 
                         testing with each payload subsystem at MIL scenario aiming at 
                         anticipating the robustness requirement verification on the 
                         development lifecycle. Moreover, the FEM prototype was also 
                         validated at HIL scenario using Test Cases automatically 
                         generated. Results of these two scenarios executions are reported 
                         demonstrating in a case study the effectiveness of FEM framework 
                         in detecting the lack or noncompliance of robustness requirements 
                         by the interoperated subsystems under testing.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.actaastro.2018.11.011",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2018.11.011",
                 issn = "0094-5765",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "batista_towards.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "19 abr. 2021"