author = "Amaral, Simone Sim{\~o}es and Costa, Maria Ang{\'e}lica Martins 
                         and Soares Neto, Turibio Gomes and Costa, Marilia Pereira and 
                         Dias, Fabiana Ferrari and Anselmo, Edson and Santos, Jos{\'e} 
                         Carlos dos and Carvalho Junior, Jo{\~a}o Andrade de",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Universidade 
                         Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Estadual 
                         Paulista (UNESP)}",
                title = "CO 2, CO, hydrocarbon gases and PM 2.5 emissions on dry season by 
                         deforestation fires in the Brazilian Amazonia",
              journal = "Environmental Pollution",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "249",
                pages = "311--320",
                month = "June",
             keywords = "Gas emission factor, PM2.5 emission factor, Emission per hectare, 
                         Equivalent CO2, Amazonia forest fires.",
             abstract = "The rate of deforestation in Brazil increased by 29% between 2015 
                         and 2016, resulting in an increase of greenhouse gas emissions 
                         (GHG) of 9%. Deforestation fires in the Amazonia are the main 
                         source of GHG in Brazil. In this work, amounts of CO 2 , CO, main 
                         hydrocarbon gases and PM 2.5 emitted during deforestation fires, 
                         under real conditions directly in Brazilian Amazonia, were 
                         determined. A brief discussion of the relationship between the 
                         annual emission of CO 2 equivalent (CO 2,eq ) and Paris Agreement 
                         was conducted. Experimental fires were carried out in Western 
                         Amazonia (Candeias do Jamari, Rio Branco and Cruzeiro do Sul) and 
                         results were compared with a previous fire carried out in Eastern 
                         Amazonia (Alta Floresta). The average total fresh biomass on the 
                         ground before burning and the total biomass consumption were 
                         estimated to be 591 ton ha \−1 and 33%, respectively. CO 2 
                         , CO, CH 4 , and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) average emission 
                         factors, for the four sites, were 1568, 140, 8, and 3 g kg 
                         \−1 of burned dry biomass, respectively. PM 2.5 showed 
                         large variation among the sites (0.916 g kg \−1 ). 
                         Emissions per hectare of forest were estimated as 216,696 kg of CO 
                         2 , 18,979 kg of CO, 1,058 kg of CH 4 , and 496 kg of NMHC. The 
                         average annual emission of equivalent CO 2 was estimated as 301  
                         53 Mt year \−1 for the Brazilian Amazonia forest. From 
                         2013, the estimated CO 2,eq showed a trend to increase in Amazon 
                         region. The present study is an alert and provides important 
                         information that can be used in the development of the public 
                         policies to control emissions and deforestation in the Brazilian 
                  doi = "10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.023",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.023",
                 issn = "0269-7491",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "amaral_co2.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 abr. 2021"