author = "Chan, Chou Sin and Marengo, Jos{\'e} A. and Silva, Adan Juliano 
                         da and Lyra, Andr{\'e} de Arruda and Tavares, Priscila da Silva 
                         and Souza, Celia Regina de Gouveia and Harari, Joseph and Nunes, 
                         Luc{\'{\i}} H. and Greco, Roberto and Hosokawa, Eduardo K. and 
                         Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de and Alves, Lincoln 
                title = "Projections of climate change in the coastal area of Santos",
            booktitle = "Climate change in Santos Brazil: projections, impacts and 
                         adaptation options",
            publisher = "Springer",
                 year = "2019",
               editor = "Nunes, L. H. and Greco, R. and Marengo, J. A.",
                pages = "59--73",
             keywords = "Santos  Climate projections  Dynamical downscaling  
                         Extremeclimate indices  Storms.",
             abstract = "The objective of this work is to assess the projections of climate 
                         change in the city of Santos. The assessment is based on the 
                         downscaling of two global climate model simulations using the Eta 
                         Regional Climate Model at 20-km and 5-km resolutions, under RCP4.5 
                         and RCP8.5 scenarios for the period between 1961 and 2100. The 
                         higher horizontal resolution simulations reproduce in more detail 
                         the surface characteristics, such as the topography, vegetation 
                         cover, and coastline, and capture the extreme climate events. 
                         Evaluation of the model simulations of the present climate show 
                         reasonable agreement with observed climatology. Frequency 
                         distributions of precipitation and temperature values show that 
                         the 5-km run approaches the observed precipitation better than the 
                         20-km resolution run. The assessment of climate change projections 
                         indicates that warming in the region reaches about 2 C until the 
                         end of the twenty-first century, and that precipitation reduces in 
                         the entire region. Trends of climatic extreme indices show 
                         increase of hot days, warm nights, and in the length of 
                         consecutive dry days with the increase of the atmospheric 
                         greenhouse gas concentrations. Projections of the minimum surface 
                         pressure off the coast of Southeast Brazil show weakening tendency 
                         under RCP8.5 scenario.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Centro 
                         Nacional de Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais 
                         (CEMADEN)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         de Geologia da Secretaria de Meio Ambiente do Estado de S{\~a}o 
                         Paulo} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)} and {Universidade 
                         Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)} and {Secretaria de Desenvolvimento 
                         Urbano do Munic{\'{\i}}pio de Santos} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                  doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-96535-2_4",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96535-2_4",
                 isbn = "978-331996535-2 and 978-331996534-5",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "chou_projections.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "14 abr. 2021"