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@PhDThesis{Tavares:2019:ReEcFl,
               author = "Tavares, Iane Brito",
                title = "Resposta ecohidrol{\'o}gica da floresta inund{\'a}vel {\`a} 
                         seca de 2015/2016 na regi{\~a}o da Ilha do Bananal",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2019",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2019-05-16",
             keywords = "Plan{\'{\i}}cie de inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o, {\'a}reas 
                         {\'u}midas, seca, crescimento da vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         hidrologia, flood plains, wetlands, drought, vegetation growth, 
                         hydrology.",
             abstract = "As {\'a}reas {\'u}midas s{\~a}o amplamente reconhecidas pelos 
                         servi{\c{c}}os ecossist{\^e}micos que fornecem, desempenhando 
                         papel importante nos servi{\c{c}}os de regula{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         h{\'{\i}}drica. Existem extensas {\'a}reas sazonalmente 
                         alag{\'a}veis na regi{\~a}o amaz{\^o}nica, que operam como um 
                         eficiente sistema de reten{\c{c}}{\~a}o de {\'a}gua, 
                         controlando e atenuando a altura dos eventos de 
                         inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o, retendo nutrientes e o fluxo de sedimentos 
                         para os rios. Nessas florestas a composi{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         comunidade arb{\'o}rea {\'e} determinada principalmente pelas 
                         adapta{\c{c}}{\~o}es ao alagamento. No entanto, em um 
                         cen{\'a}rio de mudan{\c{c}}as no regime de 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~o}es, o crescimento das {\'a}rvores e as 
                         suas respectivas capacidades de respostas as 
                         altera{\c{c}}{\~o}es ambientais naturais, podem ser afetadas. 
                         Para entender a resposta da floresta a esses eventos, este 
                         trabalho investigou a influ{\^e}ncia das inunda{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         sazonais no crescimento das {\'a}rvores em uma {\'a}rea de 
                         transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o entre os biomas Amaz{\^o}nia e Cerrado 
                         (plan{\'{\i}}cie de inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o do rio Araguaia). 
                         Avaliou-se como esse padr{\~a}o de inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         modificou-se no ano de El Niņo Oscila{\c{c}}{\~a}o Sul (ENSO), e 
                         seu efeito no crescimento das {\'a}rvores. Neste trabalho 
                         avaliou-se a rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o entre as vari{\'a}veis 
                         atmosf{\'e}ricas e hidrol{\'o}gicas (ou seja, 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, temperatura do ar, n{\'{\i}}vel do 
                         len{\c{c}}ol fre{\'a}tico e altura inundada) com o crescimento 
                         do di{\^a}metro das {\'a}rvores entre 2004 e 2017. No mesmo 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo, realizou-se an{\'a}lises 
                         f{\'{\i}}sico-qu{\'{\i}}micas do solo, sendo estimada a 
                         disponibilidade de {\'a}gua no solo e comparadas com os limites 
                         de opera{\c{c}}{\~o}es hidr{\'a}ulicas das {\'a}rvores 
                         (potencial h{\'{\i}}drico foliar e ponto de perda de turgor 
                         foliar). Os resultados mostraram ocorr{\^e}ncia de seca nos anos 
                         hidrol{\'o}gicos 2015/2016 e 2016/2017 em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o a 
                         climatologia da regi{\~a}o. Em 2015/2016 observou-se um longo 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo de estiagem (com dura{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 6 meses; 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o menor que 50 mm), e 
                         diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o na altura e dura{\c{c}}{\~a}o do 
                         alagamento. O padr{\~a}o de crescimento do tronco das 
                         {\'a}rvores mostrou redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o do incremento no 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo seco e dorm{\^e}ncia (5 meses) e no 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo alagado na floresta sazonalmente alag{\'a}vel na 
                         plan{\'{\i}}cie do rio Araguaia. O impacto do aumento da 
                         dura{\c{c}}{\~a}o da fase seca aparentemente foi maior que do 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo de dorm{\^e}ncia do per{\'{\i}}odo alagado e 
                         suficiente para diminuir a tend{\^e}ncia geral de crescimento. Em 
                         2015/2016 o crescimento anual atingiu cerca de 50% do valor obtido 
                         nos anos climatologicamente normais (2013/2014 e 2014/2015). Parte 
                         desse comportamento foi explicado pela falta de {\'a}gua no solo 
                         (at{\'e} 80 cm de profundidade) em alguns meses do 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo seco. Nesse per{\'{\i}}odo os potenciais 
                         h{\'{\i}}dricos no solo estavam abaixo (muito negativos) do 
                         limite de opera{\c{c}}{\~a}o das {\'a}rvores avaliadas. Para 
                         lidar com o estresse h{\'{\i}}drico na seca (ENSO), algumas 
                         {\'a}rvores provavelmente aumentaram o controle estom{\'a}tico 
                         para manter o turgor foliar elevado. Observou-se tamb{\'e}m que 
                         em geral, a resposta dessa floresta aos efeitos do alagamento e da 
                         seca foi diferente do padr{\~a}o observado nas florestas 
                         sazonalmente alag{\'a}veis da Amaz{\^o}nia Central, o que torna 
                         dif{\'{\i}}cil generalizar e estabelecer cen{\'a}rios mais 
                         conclusivos sobre os impactos das secas extremas no funcionamento 
                         das florestas alag{\'a}veis. Considerando as previs{\~o}es de 
                         aumento das frequ{\^e}ncias e severidade das secas na regi{\~a}o 
                         Amaz{\^o}nica, investiga{\c{c}}{\~o}es sobre as respostas das 
                         {\'a}rvores aos efeitos das secas n{\~a}o devem ser 
                         negligenciados. ABSTRACT: Wetlands are widely recognized for the 
                         ecosystem services they provide, playing an important role in 
                         water regulation services. There are extensive seasonally 
                         floodable areas in the Amazon region which operate as an efficient 
                         water retention system, controlling and attenuating the flood 
                         height, retaining nutrients and the flow of sediments to rivers. 
                         In these forests, tree community composition is determined mainly 
                         by the adaptations to flood. However, in a scenario of changes in 
                         the precipitation regime, tree growth and their ability to respond 
                         to natural environmental changes may be affected. To understand 
                         the response of the forest to these events, this work investigated 
                         the influence of seasonal flooding on tree growth in a transition 
                         area between the Amazon and Cerrado biomes (Araguaia river 
                         floodplain). It was evaluated how this flood pattern changed 
                         during an El Niņo - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) year, and its 
                         effect on tree growth. In this work, the relationship between 
                         atmospheric and hydrological variables (i.e., precipitation, air 
                         temperature, groundwater level and flooded height) were evaluated 
                         with the tree diameter growth between 2004 and 2017. In the same 
                         period, physical and chemical soil analyzes were performed along 
                         with soil water availability and compared to the trees hydraulic 
                         operations limits (leaf water potential and leaf turgor loss 
                         point). The results showed the drought occurrence in the 
                         hydrological years 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 with reference to the 
                         mean climatology of this region. In 2015/2016 a long period of 
                         drought presenting rainfall less than 50 mm (lasting 6 months), 
                         and decreased height and duration of flooding were observed. The 
                         growth trunk pattern of the trees showed a reduction of the 
                         increment during the dry period and an extended dormancy (5 
                         months) in the flooded period in the seasonally flooded forest in 
                         the Araguaia river plain. The impact of the increased dry phase 
                         appeared to be greater than the dormancy during the flooded 
                         period, which was sufficient to decrease the overall growth trend. 
                         In 2015/2016 the annual growth reached about 50% of the value 
                         obtained in climatologically normal years (2013/2014 and 
                         2014/2015). Part of this behavior was explained by the lack of 
                         water in the soil (layers up to 80 cm depth) in some months of the 
                         dry period. During this period, the soil water potential was below 
                         (very negative) the operating limit of the evaluated trees. To 
                         cope with water stress during the ENSO drought, some trees 
                         probably increased stomatal control to keep leaf turgor high. It 
                         was also observed that, in general, the response of this forest to 
                         flood and drought effects was different from the pattern observed 
                         in the seasonally flooded forests of Central Amazonia, which makes 
                         it difficult to generalize and establish more conclusive scenarios 
                         on the impacts of extreme droughts on the functioning of 
                         floodplain forests. Considering the predictions of increased 
                         frequency and severity of droughts in the Amazon region, 
                         researches regarding tree responses to the effects of drought 
                         should not be neglected.",
            committee = "von Randow, Celso (presidente) and Borma, Laura de Simone 
                         (orientadora) and Novo, Evlyn M{\'a}rcia Le{\~a}o de Moraes and 
                         Monteiro Junior, Mauro Brum and Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro da and 
                         Collicchio, Erich",
         englishtitle = "Ecohydrological response of the floodplain forest to the 2015/2016 
                         drought in the Bananal Island region",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "147",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3T7KKLP",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3T7KKLP",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"
}


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