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@Article{BourlčsAMBFLGHLNCSTDHHLRCSJP:2019:SuObSy,
               author = "Bourl{\`e}s, Bernard and Ara{\'u}jo, Moacyr and McPhaden, 
                         Michael J. and Brandt, Peter and Foltz, Gregory R. and Lumpkin, 
                         Rick and Giordani, Herv{\'e} and Hernandez, Fabrice and 
                         Lef{\`e}vre, Nathalie and Nobre, Paulo and Campos, Edmo and 
                         Saravanan, Ramalingam and Trotte-Duh{\`a}, Janice and Dengler, 
                         Marcus and Hahn, Johannes and Hummels, Rebecca and L{\"u}bbecke, 
                         Joke F. and Rouault, Mathieu and Cotrim, Leticia and Sutton, 
                         Adrienne and Jochum, Markus and Perez, Renellys C.",
          affiliation = "{Laboratoire d'{\'E}tudes en G{\'e}ophysique et 
                         Oc{\'e}anographie Spatiales} and {Universidade Federal de 
                         Pernambuco (UFPE)} and {NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental 
                         Laboratory} and {GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel} 
                         and {NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory} 
                         and {NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory} 
                         and {M{\'e}t{\'e}o\‐France/Centre National de Recherches 
                         M{\'e}t{\'e}orologiques} and {Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 
                         (UFPE)} and {IRD/Laboratoire d'Oc{\'e}anographie et du Climat: 
                         Exp{\'e}rimentations et Approches Num{\'e}riques} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Texas A\&M University} and 
                         Desenvolvimento Nuclear e Technol{\'o}gico da Marinha, Brasilia 
                         and {GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel} and {GEOMAR 
                         Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel} and {GEOMAR Helmholtz 
                         Centre for Ocean Research Kiel} and {GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for 
                         Ocean Research Kiel} and {Nansen\‐Tutu Centre for Marine 
                         Environmental Research} and {Universidade Estadual do Rio de 
                         Janeiro (UERJ)} and {NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory} 
                         and {Niels Bohr Institute} and {NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and 
                         Meteorological Laboratory}",
                title = "PIRATA: a sustained observing system for tropical atlantic climate 
                         research and forecasting",
              journal = "Earth and Space Science",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "6",
               number = "4",
                pages = "577--616",
                month = "Apr.",
             abstract = "Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic 
                         (PIRATA) is a multinational program initiated in 1997 in the 
                         tropical Atlantic to improve our understanding and ability to 
                         predict ocean-atmosphere variability. PIRATA consists of a network 
                         of moored buoys providing meteorological and oceanographic data 
                         transmitted in real time to address fundamental scientific 
                         questions as well as societal needs. The network is maintained 
                         through dedicated yearly cruises, which allow for extensive 
                         complementary shipboard measurements and provide platforms for 
                         deployment of other components of the Tropical Atlantic Observing 
                         System. This paper describes network enhancements, scientific 
                         accomplishments and successes obtained from the last 10years of 
                         observations, and additional results enabled by cooperation with 
                         other national and international programs. Capacity building 
                         activities and the role of PIRATA in a future Tropical Atlantic 
                         Observing System that is presently being optimized are also 
                         described. Plain Language Summary Long data records are essential 
                         for improving our understanding of the weather and climate, their 
                         variability and predictability, and how the climate may change in 
                         the future in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. 
                         Climate variability in the tropical Atlantic Ocean has strong 
                         impacts on the coastal climate in particular and, consequently, 
                         the economies of the surrounding regions. Since 1997, the 
                         Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic 
                         (PIRATA) program has maintained a network of moored buoys in the 
                         tropical Atlantic in order to provide instantaneous high-quality 
                         data to research scientists and weather forecasters around the 
                         world. This paper describes PIRATA successes in terms of 
                         scientific discoveries and observing technology enhancements. 
                         Perspectives are also provided on PIRATA's role in the future 
                         Tropical Atlantic Observing System, currently under design, that 
                         will consist of a variety of coordinated measurements from 
                         satellites, ships, buoys, and other ocean technologies.",
                  doi = "10.1029/2018EA000428",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2018EA000428",
                 issn = "2333-5084",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "2018EA000428.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"
}


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