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@MastersThesis{Pereira:2019:DeLiMo,
               author = "Pereira, Vin{\'{\i}}cius Peripato Borges",
                title = "Um novo paradigma de ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o pr{\'e}-colombiana na 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia: detec{\c{c}}{\~a}o com LiDAR e modelagem da 
                         ocorr{\^e}ncia de estruturas arqueol{\'o}gicas ocultadas pelo 
                         dossel florestal",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2019",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2019-06-18",
             keywords = "LiDAR, arqueologia, pr{\'e}-colombiano, geoglifos, M{\'e}todo de 
                         Entropia M{\'a}xima (MaxEnt), archeology, pre-columbian, 
                         geoglyph, Maximum Entropy Methods (MaxEnt).",
             abstract = "Diversas pesquisas j{\'a} realizadas na floresta Amaz{\^o}nica 
                         apresentam evid{\^e}ncias da extensa popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         pr{\'e}-colombiana que habitou a {\'a}rea. Desses achados, 96,8% 
                         ocorreram em {\'a}reas submetidas ao desmatamento, 2,7% em bordas 
                         florestais, e somente 0,5% em {\'a}reas preservadas das 
                         a{\c{c}}{\~o}es antr{\'o}picas contempor{\^a}neas. Atualmente, 
                         a descoberta desses s{\'{\i}}tios arqueol{\'o}gicos ainda 
                         ocorre, majoritariamente, posterior ao desmatamento e a 
                         degrada{\c{c}}{\~a}o ambiental, que removem o dossel florestal e 
                         revelam as estruturas. Essas a{\c{c}}{\~o}es antr{\'o}picas 
                         destroem elementos arqueol{\'o}gicos importantes que 
                         possibilitariam compreender os estilos de vida humana passada. A 
                         detec{\c{c}}{\~a}o de s{\'{\i}}tios arqueol{\'o}gicos 
                         preservados da era pr{\'e}-colombiana sob florestas densas, tem o 
                         potencial de abrir novas fronteiras de conhecimento na 
                         antropologia, arquitetura, arqueologia, ecologia, novas 
                         hip{\'o}teses sobre o funcionamento e resili{\^e}ncia florestal 
                         {\`a}s mudan{\c{c}}as clim{\'a}ticas globais. Assim, o 
                         principal objetivo do estudo foi detectar {\'a}reas com 
                         presen{\c{c}}a de estruturas arqueol{\'o}gicas inexploradas sob 
                         o dossel florestal e modelar o potencial de ocorr{\^e}ncia destes 
                         s{\'{\i}}tios na Amaz{\^o}nia. Para isso, cerca de 6.000 kmē de 
                         dados de Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), coletados em 
                         diferentes regi{\~o}es foram processados e inspecionados. Esta 
                         an{\'a}lise culminou na descoberta de 24 novas poss{\'{\i}}veis 
                         estruturas pr{\'e}-colombianas na floresta Amaz{\^o}nica. 
                         Destas, 22 foram encontradas sob a cobertura do dossel florestal 
                         amaz{\^o}nico. Ap{\'o}s esta etapa foi utilizado o modelo 
                         preditivo MaxEnt para determinar o potencial de ocorr{\^e}ncia 
                         dos s{\'{\i}}tios arqueol{\'o}gicos na Amaz{\^o}nia. Modelos 
                         foram desenvolvidos para estabelecer a distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         potencial dos s{\'{\i}}tios, um baseado somente nos dados de 
                         ocorr{\^e}ncias antigas, e outro modelo foi desenvolvido 
                         contemplando tamb{\'e}m as novas descobertas desta 
                         disserta{\c{c}}{\~a}o. Foram utilizadas vari{\'a}veis 
                         ed{\'a}ficas e topogr{\'a}ficas como preditoras, que revelaram 
                         um aumento da {\'a}rea de distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         s{\'{\i}}tios no escudo da Guiana, na calha do rio Amazonas (na 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia central) e no sul da Amaz{\^o}nia. Como resultado, 
                         as novas estruturas arqueol{\'o}gicas identificadas aumentaram em 
                         733% a quantidade de estruturas localizadas em {\'a}reas 
                         preservadas das a{\c{c}}{\~o}es antr{\'o}picas 
                         contempor{\^a}neas, e a modelagem indica que elas ainda podem ser 
                         encontradas em mais de um quarto dos territ{\'o}rios atualmente 
                         inexplorados da floresta Amaz{\^o}nica. Pode-se concluir que a 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia possui distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o abrangente de 
                         {\'a}reas que no passado foram submetidas {\`a} terraplanagem 
                         para abrigar assentamentos pr{\'e}-colombianos, localizados 
                         estrategicamente em {\'a}reas de floresta de terra firme e 
                         v{\'a}rzea. ABSTRACT: Several researches already developed in the 
                         Amazon forest present evidences of extensive pre-Columbian 
                         population that inhabited the area. Of these, 96.8% occurred in 
                         areas subject to deforestation, 2.7% in forest border, and only 
                         0.5% in areas preserved from contemporary anthropogenic actions. 
                         Currently, the discovery of these archaeological sites still 
                         occurs, mostly after deforestation and degradation, which remove 
                         the forest canopy and reveal the structures. These anthropic 
                         actions destroy important archaeological elements that would 
                         enable a broader understand of past human life. Detection of 
                         archaeological sites preserved from the pre-Columbian era under 
                         dense forests has the potential to open new frontiers of knowledge 
                         in anthropology, architecture, archeology, ecology, new hypothesis 
                         about forest functioning and resilience to global climate change. 
                         Thus, the main objective of the study was to detect areas with 
                         unexplored archaeological structures beneath the forest canopy and 
                         model their potential occurrence over the Amazonia. For this, 
                         6,000 kmē of Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data collected in 
                         different regions were processed and inspected. This analysis 
                         culminated into the discovery of 24 possible new pre-Columbian 
                         infrastructures in the Amazonia forest. Of these, 22 were found 
                         beneath the forest canopy. After this step the predictive model 
                         MaxEnt was used to define the potential of occurrence of other 
                         archaeological sites in the Amazon. Models were develop to 
                         establish the potential distribution of sites, one based only on 
                         old occurrences data, and another model was developed that also 
                         contemplates the new findings of this dissertation. Edaphic and 
                         topographic variables were used as predictors which revealed an 
                         increase of the sites distributions on the Guyana shield, along 
                         the Amazon River channel (in central Amazonia) and southern 
                         Amazonia. As a result, the newly identified archaeological 
                         structures increased by 733% the amount of structures located in 
                         areas preserved from contemporary anthropogenic actions, and the 
                         modelling indicates that they can still be found in more than a 
                         quarter of the currently uncharted territories of the Amazon 
                         rainforest. It can be concluded that the Amazon has a wide 
                         distribution of areas that in the past were subjected to earthwork 
                         construction for pre-Columbian settlements, located strategically 
                         on areas of upland and floodplain forests.",
            committee = "Escada, Maria Isabel Sobral (presidente) and Arag{\~a}o, Luiz 
                         Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de (orientador) and Iriarte, Jos{\'e} and 
                         Levis, Carolina",
         englishtitle = "A new paradigm of pre-columbian occupation in the Amazonia: LiDAR 
                         detection and modeling occurrence of archaeological structures 
                         hidden beneath the canopy",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "116",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3TG9D5P",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3TG9D5P",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "30 nov. 2020"
}


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