author = "Cassalho, Fel{\'{\i}}cio and Beskow, Samuel and Mello, Carlos 
                         Rog{\'e}rio and Oliveira, Leroi Floriano and Aguiar, Marilton 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal de de Lavras (UFLA)} and {Universidade Federal de Pelotas 
                         (UFPel)} and {Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel)}",
                title = "Evaluation of flood timing and regularity over hydrological 
                         regionalization in Southern Brazil",
              journal = "Journal of Hydrologic Engineering",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "24",
               number = "8",
                pages = "e05019022",
                month = "aug.",
             keywords = "Regional flood frequency analysis, Seasonality index, 
                         Heterogeneity and discordancy measures, Cluster analysis, Fuzzy 
                         c-means, Rio Grande do Sul State.",
             abstract = "Extreme floods are often devastating, directly affecting millions 
                         of people worldwide. Because of the lack of infrastructure and 
                         proper hydrological monitoring, flood-related hazards in 
                         developing countries are magnified. Therefore, regionalization 
                         approaches associated with flood indices stand out for allowing 
                         reliable design flood estimates and enabling the identification of 
                         their driving mechanisms. In this context, the present study aims 
                         to evaluate flood timing and regularity using directional 
                         statistics for hydrological regionalization. A robust 
                         methodological framework was proposed combining fuzzy logic 
                         algorithms and the seasonality index, considering maximum annual 
                         streamflow data for Southern Brazil. It was found that major 
                         floods take place between midwinter and early spring with no 
                         well-defined spatial pattern; however, a significant decrease in 
                         their regularity was observed westward. Based on these 
                         characteristics, two clustering scenarios were proposed. According 
                         to the heterogeneity measure, hydrologically homogeneous regions 
                         were formed for the entire study area, except for the mountainous 
                         region in the northeast. Four main flood-driving mechanisms were 
                         identified: frontal systems, maritime air masses, consecutive 
                         rainfall days, and antecedent soil moisture.",
                  doi = "10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001815",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001815",
                 issn = "1084-0699",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001815.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "16 abr. 2021"