author = "Endo, Clarissa Akemi Kajiya and Gherardi, Douglas Francisco 
                         Marcolino and Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi and Lima, Leonardo Nascimento",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Euro-Mediterranean Center on 
                         Climate Change (CMCC)}",
                title = "Low connectivity compromises the conservation of reef fshes by 
                         marine protected areas in the tropical South Atlantic",
              journal = "Scientific Reports",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "9",
               number = "e8634",
                month = "June",
             abstract = "The total spatial coverage of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within 
                         the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ) has recently achieved 
                         the quantitative requirement of the Aichii Biodiversity Target 11. 
                         However, the distribution of MPAs in the Brazilian EEZ is still 
                         unbalanced regarding the proportion of protected ecosystems, 
                         protection goals and management types. Moreover, the demographic 
                         connectivity between these MPAs and their effectiveness regarding 
                         the maintenance of biodiversity are still not comprehensively 
                         understood. An individual-based modeling scheme coupled with a 
                         regional hydrodynamic model of the ocean is used to determine the 
                         demographic connectivity of reef fishes based on the widespread 
                         genus Sparisoma found in the oceanic islands and on the Brazilian 
                         continental shelf between 10 degrees N and 23 degrees S. Model 
                         results indicate that MPAs are highly isolated due to extremely 
                         low demographic connectivity. Consequently, low connectivity and 
                         the long distances separating MPAs contribute to their isolation. 
                         Therefore, the current MPA design falls short of its goal of 
                         maintaining the demographic connectivity of Sparisoma populations 
                         living within these areas. In an extreme scenario in which the 
                         MPAs rely solely on protected populations for recruits, it is 
                         unlikely that they will be able to effectively contribute to the 
                         resilience of these populations or other reef fish species sharing 
                         the same dispersal abilities. Results also show that recruitment 
                         occurs elsewhere along the continental shelf indicating that the 
                         protection of areas larger than the current MPAs would enhance the 
                         network, maintain connectivity and contribute to the conservation 
                         of reef fishes.",
                  doi = "10.1038/s41598-019-45042-0",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45042-0",
                 issn = "2045-2322",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "s41598-019-45042-0.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 abr. 2021"