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@Article{BreunigPerGalAlbGro:2019:DiAnEf,
               author = "Breunig, F{\'a}bio M. and Pereira Filho, Waterloo and 
                         Galv{\~a}o, L{\^e}nio Soares and Alberti, Edison and Gross, 
                         Joceli",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal de Santa 
                         Maria (UFSM)} and {Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)}",
                title = "Directional and angular effects on the spectral reflectance of 
                         waters with variable amounts of total suspended solids",
              journal = "Journal of Applied Remote Sensing",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "13",
               number = "2",
                pages = "e024524",
                month = "june",
             keywords = "remote sensing, water, reflectance, moderate resolution imaging 
                         spectroradiometer, empirical models, bidirectional reflectance 
                         distribution function.",
             abstract = "Viewing geometry is one of the most important factors to consider 
                         when water bodies are observed from satellite sensors with large 
                         field of view. We examine the directional and angular effects on 
                         the reflectance of waters with different concentrations of total 
                         suspended solids (TSSs). In the laboratory, we measure the 
                         reflectance in five view zenith angles (VZAs) and eight view 
                         azimuth angles (VAAs) for optically shallow waters having four 
                         concentrations of TSSs. Seven empirical models to estimate TSSs 
                         based only on the reflectance of the red band (similar to 660 nm) 
                         are evaluated. In addition, we analyze Moderate Resolution Imaging 
                         Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Terra reflectance measured in 13 
                         consecutive satellite overpasses. The results show that the 
                         reflectance of the inland-like water is affected by data 
                         acquisition geometry. The best wavelength to estimate TSS is 625 
                         nm for most VZAs and VAAs. The lowest correlations between 
                         reflectance and TSS are observed at extreme viewing with the 
                         anisotropy decreasing with increasing concentrations of TSSs. 
                         Directional and angular effects are also observed for MODIS 
                         (acquired and simulated data) with TSS underestimates observed 
                         close to the orthogonal plane for all VZAs, and TSS overestimates 
                         observed in the principal scattering plane in the forward 
                         scattering direction. More anisotropic waters are observed for VZA 
                         greater than +/- 30 deg. Results highlight the need for correcting 
                         MODIS data for bidirectional effects in inland water studies.",
                  doi = "10.1117/1.JRS.13.024524",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JRS.13.024524",
                 issn = "1931-3195",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "024524_1.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"
}


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