author = "Costa, Fernando de Souza and Fischer, Gustavo Alexandre Achilles",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Propulsion and thermodynamic parameters of van der Waals gases in 
                         rocket nozzles",
              journal = "International Journal of Aerospace Engineering",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "2019",
                pages = "3139204",
                month = "Aug.",
             abstract = "Propellants or combustion products can reach high pressures and 
                         temperatures in advanced or conventional propulsion systems. 
                         Variations in flow properties and the effects of real gases along 
                         a nozzle can become significant and influence the calculation of 
                         propulsion and thermodynamic parameters used in performance 
                         analysis and design of rockets. This work derives new analytical 
                         solutions for propulsion parameters, considering gases obeying the 
                         van der Waals equation of state with specific heats varying with 
                         pressure and temperature. Steady isentropic one-dimensional flows 
                         through a nozzle are assumed for the determination of specific 
                         impulse, characteristic velocity, thrust coefficient, critical 
                         flow constant, and exit and throat flow properties of He, H-2, 
                         N-2, H2O, and CO2 gases. Errors of ideal gas solutions for 
                         calorically perfect and thermally perfect gases are determined 
                         with respect to van der Waals gases, for chamber temperatures 
                         varying from 1000 to 4000 K and chamber pressures from 5 to 35 
                         MPa. The effects of covolumes and intermolecular attraction forces 
                         on flow and propulsion parameters are analyzed.",
                  doi = "10.1155/2019/3139204",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3139204",
                 issn = "1687-5966",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "costa_propulsion.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "13 abr. 2021"