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@Article{KlippPSFCPAHKBJFBSW:2019:EvIoMo,
               author = "Klipp, Telmo dos Santos and Petry, Adriano and Souza, Jonas 
                         Rodrigues de and Falc{\~a}o, Gabriel Sandim and Campos Velho, 
                         Haroldo Fraga de and Paula, Eurico Rodrigues de and Antreich, 
                         Felix and Hoque, Mainul and Kriegel, Martin and Berdermann, Jens 
                         and Jakowski, Norbert and Fernandez Gomez, Isabel and Borries, 
                         Claudia and Sato, Hiroatsu and Wilken, Volker",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Tecnol{\'o}gico de Aeron{\'a}utica (ITA)} and {German 
                         Aerospace Center (DLR)} and {German Aerospace Center (DLR)} and 
                         {German Aerospace Center (DLR)} and {German Aerospace Center 
                         (DLR)} and {German Aerospace Center (DLR)} and {German Aerospace 
                         Center (DLR)} and {German Aerospace Center (DLR)} and {German 
                         Aerospace Center (DLR)}",
                title = "Evaluation of ionospheric models for Central and South Americas",
              journal = "Advances in Space Research",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "64",
               number = "10",
                pages = "2125--2136",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "Ionosphere, Total electron content, Physics-based ionospheric 
                         model, Empirical ionospheric model, Seasonal variation, 
                         Statistical evaluation.",
             abstract = "This work shows a 20-month statistical evaluation of different 
                         Total Electron Content (TEC) estimators for the Central and South 
                         America regions. The TEC provided by the International GNSS 
                         Service (IGS) in the area covered around the monitoring GNSS 
                         stations are used as reference values, and they are compared to 
                         TEC estimates from the physics-based (Sheffield University 
                         Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model-PIM) and the empirical (Neustrelitz 
                         TEC Model-Global-NTCM-GL) models. The mean TEC values show strong 
                         dependence on both solar activity and seasonal variation. A clear 
                         response was noticed for a period close to 27 days due to the mean 
                         solar rotation, as seen in the solar flux measurements. 
                         Consistently, the mean TEC values present an annual variation with 
                         maxima during December solstices for southern stations with 
                         geographic latitudes greater than 25 degrees S. Semi-annual 
                         dependence has been observed in TEC for the sector between +/- 25 
                         degrees of geographical latitude but with modulations caused by 
                         fluctuation in the solar radiation. We observed a high correlation 
                         between solar radio flux F10.7 and NTCM-GL outputs. The fast 
                         increases in F10.7 index have caused significant differences 
                         between IGS data and NTCM-GL results mainly for equatorial and low 
                         latitudes. For the initial months of the evaluated period 
                         (January-April, 2016), the errors of the physics-based model were 
                         considerably larger, mainly near the equatorial ionization 
                         anomaly. The discrepancies observed in SUPIM results are mainly 
                         due to inputs of solar EUV flux. The EUVAC model has 
                         underestimated EUV flux between January and April, 2016, when the 
                         solar activity was moderated and Solar2000 model has overestimated 
                         such flux during low solar cycle period between May and August, 
                         2017. In relation to IGS data, the two assessed models presented 
                         smaller differences during the June solstice season of 2016.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.asr.2019.09.005",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2019.09.005",
                 issn = "0273-1177 and 1879-1948",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "klipp_evaluation.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "13 abr. 2021"
}


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