author = "Siqueira, L{\'e}o and Ram{\'{\i}}rez, Enver Ramirez Manuel 
                         Amador and Camayo Maita, Rosio Del Pilar",
                title = "An overview of the El Niño, La Niña, and the southern oscillation 
                         phenomena: theory, observations, and modeling links",
            booktitle = "Towards mathematics, computers and environment: a disasters 
            publisher = "Springer Nature",
                 year = "2019",
               editor = "Santos, Leonardo Bacelar Lima and Negri, Rog{\'e}rio Galante and 
                         Carvalho, Tiago Jos{\'e} de",
                pages = "1--18",
              address = "Cham, Switzerland",
             keywords = "El Niño, La Niña.",
             abstract = "As an important subject of study, the climate science encompasses 
                         all processes and phenomena in the atmosphere, ocean, ice, and 
                         land, displaying variability over a broad, although well defined, 
                         spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. The disparity of spatial 
                         and temporal scales of climate processes poses a major challenge 
                         in climate modeling, ranging from regional to planetary scales and 
                         from intraseasonal to climate changes over centuries. Moreover, 
                         despite the number of efforts to elucidate prominent phenomena, 
                         certain key features remain elusive, and so preclude actions 
                         toward anticipation and mitigation of hazardous impacts, with 
                         implications over diverse human activities. One interesting 
                         example is the El Niño, La NiñaSouthern Oscillation (ENSO), which 
                         implies in a prominent large-scale coupled oceanatmosphere 
                         oscillation across the equatorial Pacific. ENSO represents the 
                         dominant variability in the climate system on interannual to 
                         decadal timescales. The long-time behavior of the ENSO dynamics, 
                         though, is typically a complex interplay between periodicity and 
                         randomness. The classic approaches cannot precisely characterize 
                         the observed variability, which typically displays structured but 
                         aperiodic oscillations. The irregularity makes difficult to 
                         predict when the next extreme phase of ENSO is going to be 
                         manifested and the peak magnitude of the event has also been a 
                         difficult parameter to predict. Although the theory for ENSO has 
                         been widely explored along the past 40 years by observational and 
                         theoretical work involving different views, there is still lack of 
                         consensus between modelers and observers about what are the 
                         essential mechanisms for ENSO. Recent studies suggest that there 
                         exists El Niño (La Niña) diversity regarding the parameters 
                         related to its amplitude, trigger mechanisms, spatial patterns, 
                         and life cycle as well as its impacts on the globe. Thus, the 
                         objective of the present work is to discuss the development of the 
                         ideas toward what is known about ENSO today. Here, a review on 
                         theoretical fundamentals is presented from ENSO model hierarchy, 
                         basic mechanisms, ENSO irregularity, and interactions with other 
                         scales of variability along with a brief discussion of some recent 
                         observational results.",
          affiliation = "{University of Miami} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                  doi = "doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21205-6_1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21205-6_1",
                 isbn = "978-3-030-21204-9 and {978-3-030-21205-6 (eBook)}",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "ElNino_LaNina_overview.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "21 abr. 2021"