author = "Salio, Paola Veronica and Cencelada, Maite and Nesbitt, Stephen W. 
                         and Vidal, Luciano and Vila, Daniel Alejandro",
          affiliation = "{Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera} and {Centro de 
                         Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera} and {University of 
                         Illinois at Urbana Champaign} and {Servicio Meteorologico 
                         Nacional} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Environmental conditions associated to convective initiation of 
                         extreme convective systems over Southeastern South America",
                 year = "2019",
         organization = "AGU Fall Meeting",
             abstract = "Many thunderstorms in Southeastern South America (SESA) stand out 
                         in satellite observations as being among the strong on Earth in 
                         terms of satellite-based convective proxies, such as lightning 
                         flash rate per storm, the prevalence for extremely tall, wide 
                         convective cores and broad stratiform regions. Knowing when and 
                         where strong convection is initiated presenting a great interest 
                         because of the close relationship between convective storms and 
                         severe weather phenomena. This paper generates a novel methodology 
                         to determine convective initiation areas associated with extreme 
                         convective systems. Due to the lack of long records of 
                         ground-based radars in the area, Rain Precipitation Features 
                         (RPFs) from Global Precipitation Measurement and Tropical Rainfall 
                         Measurement Mission are considered to determine extreme convective 
                         events, as well as overshooting tops from GOES16 over 
                         RELAMPAGO-CACTI field campaign. These different extreme convective 
                         events generate a large sample allowing to determine convective 
                         initiation areas over SESA during multiple years. All events are 
                         tracked backward using an adaptive threshold area-overlapping 
                         technique with thermal infrared (IR) channel. It was necessary to 
                         consider multiple IR temperature thresholds in order to identify 
                         areas of deep convection embedded within larger cloud clusters. 
                         Convective initiation diurnal cycle is analyzed near principal 
                         mountain barriers (Sierras de C{\'o}rdoba, central and 
                         Northwestern Argentinean Andes), denoting a strong relationship 
                         during the afternoon and early evening hours with convergence at 
                         mountain ridges. It is also possible to detect convective 
                         initiation areas over flat terrain, revealing with a strong 
                         initiation signal on nocturnal times. Key features associated with 
                         mesoscale and synoptic scale pre-environmental conditions are 
                         analyzed over different samples considering initiation times and 
                         mountain versus the surrounding plains regions.",
  conference-location = "San Francisco, CA",
      conference-year = "09-13 dec.",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "salio_environmental.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "20 jan. 2021"