author = "Cassol, Henrique Luis Godinho and Domingues, Lucas Gatti and 
                         Basso, Luana Santamaria and Gatti, Luciana Vanni and Marani, 
                         Luciano and Tejada, Graciela and Crispim, St{\'e}phane Palma and 
                         Neves, Raiane Aparecida Lopes and Correia, Caio Silvestre de 
                         Carvalho and Arai, Eg{\'{\i}}dio and Gloor, Manuel and Miller, 
                         John B. and Anderson, Liana O. and Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo 
                         Oliveira e Cruz de",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Energ{\'e}ticas (IPEN)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {University of Leeds} and NOAA and 
                         {University of Oxford} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Increasing of Carbon Emission from Biomass Burning due to the 
                         Temperature Rising and Precipitation Reduction in the Amazon",
            booktitle = "Abstracts...",
                 year = "2019",
         organization = "Chapman Conference on Understanding Carbon Climate Feedbacks",
             abstract = "Recent droughts have increased the magnitude and frequency of the 
                         forest fires in the Amazon (Arag{\~a}o et al. 2018). As a 
                         consequence, the Amazon has become a Carbon source due to the 
                         rising of the Carbon emission from biomass burned in the El Nio 
                         events. Faced with climate change and the likely acceleration of 
                         temperature in tropical regions, we hypothesize that Amazon will 
                         become a Carbon source even in non-droughts years, due to the 
                         increase of forest fires. Therefore, we compared 7 years of 
                         atmospheric profiles of CO2 obtained from aircraft overfly at four 
                         sites of the Amazon, since 2010, with temperature, precipitation, 
                         and fire counts (FC). Carbon emission from fires was obtained by 
                         the ratio of CO/CO2 and differs by site and year. The FC and 
                         climatic variables were extracted from quarterly influence areas 
                         by site and weighted by the amount of trajectories within a cell 
                         of one degree resolution. The fire emissions released by the 
                         Amazon is about 0.38  0.086 Pg.C.yr-1, which represent roughly 
                         17% of the annual global fires emissions (Werf et al. 2017). 
                         However, there are markedly divergences in the Fire emissions 
                         across Amazon. For instance, the emission from the Eastern is 400% 
                         higher and account of an average 60% more FC than observed in the 
                         Western. FC were positively and significantly correlated with 
                         Carbon from fires at all sites (\ρ = 0.55-0.83, \α = 
                         0.05, p-value<0.001), being higher in the Southeastern of Amazon 
                         (Alta Floresta and Santar{\'e}m sites), and lower in the 
                         Northwest of Amazon (Tef{\'e} site and Rio Branco Sites). This 
                         discrepancy may occur due to the Southeastern of Amazon be located 
                         inside the Arc of deforestation where the dynamic of the Land-Use 
                         Land-Cover Change is more pronounced. We also found a strong 
                         relationship between FC and temperature and precipitation (r adj 
                         = 0.44-0.67, p-value<0.001). Temperature is positively correlated 
                         with FC and explains circa of 90% of their variability in the 
                         linear model (r partial = 0.4-0.59, \α = 0.05, 
                         p-value<0.001). It means that an increase of one degree (1C) in 
                         the Amazon represents an increase of about 13600 fire counts; and 
                         the reduction of 100 mm precipitation means an increase of 315 in 
                         the fire counts. In the balance of the Fire emissions, it would 
                         add 1.27 Pg Pg.C.yr-1 at each degree celsius of increase and 0.2 
                         Pg.C.yr-1 at each 100 mm of precipitation reduction. (p 
  conference-location = "San Diego, CA",
      conference-year = "26-29 ago.",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "cassol_increasing2.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 jan. 2021"