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                         S. W.",
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                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "State of the climate in 2018",
              journal = "Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "100",
               number = "9",
                pages = "SI-S305",
                 note = "{cited By 1}",
             abstract = "In 2018, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's 
                         atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued 
                         their increase. The annual global average carbon dioxide 
                         concentration at Earth's surface was 407.4 ± 0.1 ppm, the highest 
                         in the modern instrumental record and in ice core records dating 
                         back 800 000 years. Combined, greenhouse gases and several 
                         halogenated gases contribute just over 3 W m{\^a}2 to radiative 
                         forcing and represent a nearly 43% increase since 1990. Carbon 
                         dioxide is responsible for about 65% of this radiative forcing. 
                         With a weak La Niña in early 2018 transitioning to a weak El Niño 
                         by the year's end, the global surface (land and ocean) temperature 
                         was the fourth highest on record, with only 2015 through 2017 
                         being warmer. Several European countries reported record high 
                         annual temperatures. There were also more high, and fewer low, 
                         temperature extremes than in nearly all of the 68-year extremes 
                         record. Madagascar recorded a record daily temperature of 40.5°C 
                         in Morondava in March, while South Korea set its record high of 
                         41.0°C in August in Hongcheon. Nawabshah, Pakistan, recorded its 
                         highest temperature of 50.2°C, which may be a new daily world 
                         record for April. Globally, the annual lower troposphere 
                         temperature was third to seventh highest, depending on the dataset 
                         analyzed. The lower stratospheric temperature was approximately 
                         fifth lowest. The 2018 Arctic land surface temperature was 1.2°C 
                         above the 1981-2010 average, tying for third highest in the 
                         118-year record, following 2016 and 2017. June's Arctic snow cover 
                         extent was almost half of what it was 35 years ago. Across 
                         Greenland, however, regional summer temperatures were generally 
                         below or near average. Additionally, a satellite survey of 47 
                         glaciers in Greenland indicated a net increase in area for the 
                         first time since records began in 1999. Increasing permafrost 
                         temperatures were reported at most observation sites in the 
                         Arctic, with the overall increase of 0.1°-0.2°C between 2017 and 
                         2018 being comparable to the highest rate of warming ever observed 
                         in the region. On 17 March, Arctic sea ice extent marked the 
                         second smallest annual maximum in the 38-year record, larger than 
                         only 2017. The minimum extent in 2018 was reached on 19 September 
                         and again on 23 September, tying 2008 and 2010 for the sixth 
                         lowest extent on record. The 23 September date tied 1997 as the 
                         latest sea ice minimum date on record. First-year ice now 
                         dominates the ice cover, comprising 77% of the March 2018 ice pack 
                         compared to 55% during the 1980s. Because thinner, younger ice is 
                         more vulnerable to melting out in summer, this shift in sea ice 
                         age has contributed to the decreasing trend in minimum ice extent. 
                         Regionally, Bering Sea ice extent was at record lows for almost 
                         the entire 2017/18 ice season. For the Antarctic continent as a 
                         whole, 2018 was warmer than average. On the highest points of the 
                         Antarctic Plateau, the automatic weather station Relay (74°S) 
                         broke or tied six monthly temperature records throughout the year, 
                         with August breaking its record by nearly 8°C. However, cool 
                         conditions in the western Bellingshausen Sea and Amundsen Sea 
                         sector contributed to a low melt season overall for 2017/18. High 
                         SSTs contributed to low summer sea ice extent in the Ross and 
                         Weddell Seas in 2018, underpinning the second lowest Antarctic 
                         summer minimum sea ice extent on record. Despite conducive 
                         conditions for its formation, the ozone hole at its maximum extent 
                         in September was near the 2000-18 mean, likely due to an ongoing 
                         slow decline in stratospheric chlorine monoxide concentration. 
                         Across the oceans, globally averaged SST decreased slightly since 
                         the record El Niño year of 2016 but was still far above the 
                         climatological mean. On average, SST is increasing at a rate of 
                         0.10° ± 0.01°C decade{\^a}1 since 1950. The warming appeared 
                         largest in the tropical Indian Ocean and smallest in the North 
                         Pacific. The deeper ocean continues to warm year after year. For 
                         the seventh consecutive year, global annual mean sea level became 
                         the highest in the 26-year record, rising to 81 mm above the 1993 
                         average. As anticipated in a warming climate, the hydrological 
                         cycle over the ocean is accelerating: dry regions are becoming 
                         drier and wet regions rainier. Closer to the equator, 95 named 
                         tropical storms were observed during 2018, well above the 
                         1981-2010 average of 82. Eleven tropical cyclones reached 
                         Saffir-Simpson scale Category 5 intensity. North Atlantic Major 
                         Hurricane Michael's landfall intensity of 140 kt was the fourth 
                         strongest for any continental U.S. hurricane landfall in the 
                         168-year record. Michael caused more than 30 fatalities and 25 
                         billion (U.S. dollars) in damages. In the western North Pacific, 
                         Super Typhoon Mangkhut led to 160 fatalities and 6 billion (U.S. 
                         dollars) in damages across the Philippines, Hong Kong, Macau, 
                         mainland China, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Tropical 
                         Storm Son-Tinh was responsible for 170 fatalities in Vietnam and 
                         Laos. Nearly all the islands of Micronesia experienced at least 
                         moderate impacts from various tropical cyclones. Across land, many 
                         areas around the globe received copious precipitation, notable at 
                         different time scales. Rodrigues and R{\'e}union Island near 
                         southern Africa each reported their third wettest year on record. 
                         In Hawaii, 1262 mm precipitation at Waip{\"A} Gardens (Kauai) on 
                         14-15 April set a new U.S. record for 24-h precipitation. In 
                         Brazil, the city of Belo Horizonte received nearly 75 mm of rain 
                         in just 20 minutes, nearly half its monthly average. Globally, 
                         fire activity during 2018 was the lowest since the start of the 
                         record in 1997, with a combined burned area of about 500 million 
                         hectares. This reinforced the long-term downward trend in fire 
                         emissions driven by changes in land use in frequently burning 
                         savannas. However, wildfires burned 3.5 million hectares across 
                         the United States, well above the 2000-10 average of 2.7 million 
                         hectares. Combined, U.S. wildfire damages for the 2017 and 2018 
                         wildfire seasons exceeded 40 billion (U.S. dollars). © 2019 
                         American Meteorological Society. All rights reserved.",
                  doi = "10.1175/2019BAMSStateoftheClimate.1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2019BAMSStateoftheClimate.1",
                 issn = "0003-0007",
                label = "isi 2019-12-31 
           targetfile = "2019bamsstateoftheclimate.1.pdf",
                  url = "https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85073052511\&doi=10.1175%2f2019BAMSStateoftheClimate.1\&partnerID=40\&md5=bee594186745ad4d1e031bede909074d",
        urlaccessdate = "17 abr. 2021"