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@Article{AdesAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCDDEJLDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDEEEEFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGHHHHHHHHHHHHHRHHHHHHHHHHHHIIIIIIJJJJJJJJJJJJKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMNNNNNNNOOOOPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPQRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRSSSSSSSSSSSSSJSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSWSSSSSSSSSSSSSSTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTAWASSWHVVVVVVWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWXYYZZZZZZZZZZAGHLMRV:2019:StCl20,
               author = "Ades, M. and Adler, R. and Aldeco, L. S. and Alejandra, G. and 
                         Alfaro, E. J. and Aliaga-Nestares, V. and Allan, R. P. and Allan, 
                         R. and Alves, L. M. and Amador, J. A. and Andersen, J. K. and 
                         Anderson, J. and Arndt, D. S. and Arosio, C. and Arrigo, K. and 
                         Azorin-Molina, C. and Bardin, M. Y. and Barichivich, J. and 
                         Barreira, S. and Baxter, S. and Beck, H. E. and Becker, A. and 
                         Bell, G. D. and Bellouin, N. and Belmont, M. and Benedetti, A. and 
                         Benedict, I. and Bernhard, G. H. and Berrisford, P. and Berry, D. 
                         I. and Bettio, L. and Bhatt, U. S. and Biskaborn, B. K. and 
                         Bissolli, P. and Bjella, K. L. and Bjerke, J. K. and Blake, E. S. 
                         and Blenkinsop, S. and Blunden, J. and Bock, O. and Bosilovich, M. 
                         G. and Boucher, O. and Box, J. E. and Boyer, T. and Braathen, G. 
                         and Bringas, F. G. and Bromwich, D. H. and Brown, A. and Brown, R. 
                         and Brown, T. J. and Buehler, S. A. and C{\'a}ceres, L. and 
                         Calder{\'o}n, B. and Camargo, S. J. and Campbell, J. D. and 
                         Campos Diaz, D. A. and Cappelen, J. and Carrea, L. and Carrier, S. 
                         B. and Carter, B. R. and Castro, A. Y. and Cetinic, I. and 
                         Chambers, D. P. and Chen, L. and Cheng, L. and Cheng, V. Y. S. and 
                         Christiansen, H. H. and Christy, J. R. and Chung, E. -S. and 
                         Claus, F. and Clem, K. R. and Coelho, Caio Augusto dos Santos and 
                         Coldewey-Egbers, M. and Colwell, S. and Cooper, O. R. and Cosca, 
                         C. and Covey, C. and Coy, L. and D{\'a}vila, C. P. and Davis, S. 
                         M. and de Eyto, E. and de Jeu, R. A. M. and De Laat, J. and 
                         Decharme, B. and Degasperi, C. L. and Degenstein, D. and Demircan, 
                         M. and Derksen, C. and Dhurmea, K. R. and Di Girolamo, L. and 
                         Diamond, H. J. and Diaz, E. and Diniz, F. A. and Dlugokencky, E. 
                         J. and Dohan, K. and Dokulil, M. T. and Dolman, A. J. and 
                         Domingues, C. M. and Domingues, R. and Donat, M. G. and Dorigo, W. 
                         A. and Drozdov, D. S. and Druckenmiller, M. L. and Dunn, R. J. H. 
                         and Durre, I. and Dutton, G. S. and Elkharrim, M. and Elkins, J. 
                         W. and Epstein, H. E. and Espinoza, J. C. and Famiglietti, J. S. 
                         and Farrell, S. L. and Fausto, R. S. and Feely, R. A. and Feng, Z. 
                         and Fenimore, C. and Fettweis, X. and Fioletov, V. E. and 
                         Flemming, J. and Fogt, R. L. and Forbes, B. C. and Foster, M. J. 
                         and Francis, S. D. and Franz, B. A. and Frey, R. A. and Frith, S. 
                         M. and Froidevaux, L. and Ganter, C. and Garforth, J. and Gerland, 
                         S. and Gilson, J. and Gleason, K. and Gobron, N. and Goetz, S. and 
                         Goldenberg, S. B. and Goni, G. and Gray, A. and Grooß, J. -U. and 
                         Gruber, A. and Gu, G. and Guard, C. C. P. and Gupta, S. K. and 
                         Guti{\'e}rrez, D. and Haas, C. and Hagos, S. and Hahn, S. and 
                         Haimberger, L. and Hall, B. D. and Halpert, M. S. and Hamlington, 
                         B. D. and Hanna, E. and Hanssen-Bauer, I. and Harris, I. and 
                         Hazeleger, W. and He, Q. and Heidinger, A. K. and Heim and R. , R. 
                         and Jr. and Hemming, D. L. and Hendricks, S. and Hern{\'a}ndez, 
                         R. and Hersbach, H. E. and Hidalgo, H. G. and Ho, S. -P. B. and 
                         Holmes, R. M. and Hu, C. and Huang, B. and Hubbard, K. and Hubert, 
                         D. and Hurst, D. F. and Ialongo, I. and Ijampy, J. A. and Inness, 
                         A. and Isaac, V. and Isaksen, K. and Ishii, M. and Jeffries, M. O. 
                         and Jevrejeva, S. and Jia, G. and Jim{\'e}nez, C. and Jin, X. and 
                         John, V. and Johnsen, B. and Johnson, G. C. and Johnson, K. S. and 
                         Johnson, B. and Jones, P. D. and Jumaux, G. and Kabidi, K. and 
                         Kaiser, J. W. and Karak{\"o}yl{\"u}, E. M. and Karlsen, S. -R. 
                         and Karnauskas, M. and Kato, S. and Kazemi, A. F. and Kelble, C. 
                         and Keller, L. M. and Kennedy, J. and Kholodov, A. L. and 
                         Khoshkam, M. and Kidd, R. and Killick, R. and Kim, H. and Kim, S. 
                         -J. and King, A. D. and King, B. A. and Kipling, Z. and Klotzbach, 
                         P. J. and Knaff, J. A. and Korhonen, J. and Korshunova, N. N. and 
                         Kramarova, N. A. and Kratz, D. P. and Kruger, A. and Kruk, M. C. 
                         and Krumpen, T. and Labb{\'e}, L. and Ladd, C. and Lakatos, M. 
                         and Lakkala, K. and Lander, M. A. and Landsch{\"u}tzer, P. and 
                         Landsea, C. W. and Lareau, N. P. and Lavado-Casimiro, W. and 
                         Lazzara, M. A. and Lee, T. C. and Leuliette, E. and Lheureux, M. 
                         and Li, B. and Li, T. and Lieser, J. L. and Lim, J. -Y. and Lin, 
                         I. -I. and Liu, H. and Locarnini, R. and Loeb, N. G. and Long, C. 
                         S. and L{\'o}pez, L. A. and Lorrey, A. M. and Loyola, D. and 
                         Lumpkin, R. and Luo, J. -J. and Luojus, K. and Lyman, J. M. and 
                         Malkova, G. V. and Manney, G. L. and Marchenko, S. S. and Marengo, 
                         J. A. and Marin, D. and Marquardt Collow, A. B. and Marra, J. J. 
                         and Marszelewski, W. and Martens, B. and 
                         Mart{\'{\i}}nez-G{\"u}ingla, R. and Massom, R. A. and May, L. 
                         and Mayer, M. and Mazloff, M. and McBride, C. and McCabe, M. and 
                         McClelland, J. W. and McEvoy, D. J. and McGree, S. and McVicar, T. 
                         R. and Mears, C. A. and Meier, W. and Meijers, A. and Mekonnen, A. 
                         and Mengistu Tsidu, G. and Menzel, W. P. and Merchant, C. J. and 
                         Meredith, M. P. and Merrifield, M. A. and Miller, B. and Miralles, 
                         D. G. and Misevicius, N. and Mitchum, G. T. and Mochizuki, Y. and 
                         Monselesan, D. and Montzka, S. A. and Mora, N. and Morice, C. and 
                         Mosquera-V{\'a}squez, K. and Mostafa, A. E. and Mote, T. and 
                         Mudryk, L. and M{\"u}hle, J. and Mullan, A. B. and M{\"u}ller, 
                         R. and Myneni, R. and Nash, E. R. and Nauslar, N. J. and Nerem, R. 
                         S. and Newman, P. A. and Nicolas, J. P. and Nieto, J. J. and 
                         Noetzli, J. and Osborn, T. J. and Osborne, E. and Overland, J. and 
                         Oyunjargal, L. and Park, T. and Pasch, R. J. and Pascual 
                         Ram{\'{\i}}rez, R. and Pastor Saavedra, M. A. and Paterson, A. 
                         M. and Pearce, P. R. and Pelto, M. S. and Perovich, D. and 
                         Petropavlovskikh, I. and Pezza, A. B. and Phillips, C. and 
                         Phillips, D. and Phoenix, G. and Pinty, B. and Pitts, M. and 
                         Po-Chedley, S. and Polashenski, C. and Preimesberger, W. and 
                         Purkey, S. G. and Quispe, N. and Rajeevan, M. and Rakotoarimalala, 
                         C. L. and Ramos, A. M. and Ramos, I. and Randel, W. and Raynolds, 
                         M. K. and Reagan, J. and Reid, P. and Reimer, C. and R{\'e}my, S. 
                         and Revadekar, J. V. and Richardson, A. D. and Richter-Menge, J. 
                         and Ricker, R. and Ripaldi, A. and Robinson, D. A. and Rodell, M. 
                         and Rodriguez Camino, E. and Romanovsky, V. E. and Ronchail, J. 
                         and Rosenlof, K. H. and R{\"o}sner, B. and Roth, C. and Rozanov, 
                         A. and Rusak, J. A. and Rustemeier, E. and Rutish{\"a}user, T. 
                         and Sall{\'e}e, J. -B. and S{\'a}nchez-Lugo, A. and Santee, M. 
                         L. and Sawaengphokhai, P. and Sayouri, A. and Scambos, T. A. and 
                         Scanlon, T. and Scardilli, A. S. and Schenzinger, V. and Schladow, 
                         S. G. and Schmid, C. and Schmid, M. and Schoeneich, P. and Schreck 
                         and J. , C. and III and Selkirk, H. B. and Sensoy, S. and Shi, L. 
                         and Shiklomanov, A. I. and Shiklomanov, N. I. and Shimpo, A. and 
                         Shuman, C. A. and Siegel, D. A. and Sima, F. and Simmons, A. J. 
                         and Smeets, C. J. P. P. and Smith, A. and Smith, S. L. and Soden, 
                         B. and Sofieva, V. and Sparks, T. H. and Spence, J. and Spencer, 
                         R. G. M. and Spillane, S. and Srivastava, A. K. and Stabeno, P. J. 
                         and Stackhouse and W. , P. and Jr. and Stammerjohn, S. and 
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                         and Thompson, P. R. and Timbal, B. and Timmermans, M. -L. and 
                         Tobin, S. and Tømmervik, H. and Tourpali, K. and Trachte, K. and 
                         Tretiakov, M. and Trewin, B. C. and Triñanes, J. A. and Trotman, 
                         A. R. and Tschudi, M. and Tye, M. R. and van As, D. and van de 
                         Wal, R. S. W. and van der A, R. J. and van der Schalie, R. and van 
                         der Schrier, G. and van der Werf, G. R. and van Heerwaarden, C. 
                         and Van Meerbeeck, C. J. and Verburg, P. and Vieira, G. and 
                         Vincent, L. A. and V{\"o}mel, H. and Vose, R. S. and Walker, D. 
                         A. and Walsh, J. E. and Wang, B. and Wang, H. and Wang, L. and 
                         Wang, M. and Wang, M. and Wang, R. and Wang, S. -H. and 
                         Wanninkhof, R. and Watanabe, S. and Weber, M. and Webster, M. and 
                         Weerts, A. and Weller, R. A. and Westberry, T. K. and Weyhenmeyer, 
                         G. A. and Widlansky, M. J. and Wijffels, S. E. and Wilber, A. C. 
                         and Wild, J. D. and Willett, K. M. and Wong, T. and Wood, E. F. 
                         and Woolway, R. I. and Xue, Y. and Yin, X. and Yu, L. and 
                         Zambrano, E. and Zeyaeyan, S. and Zhang, H. -M. and Zhang, P. and 
                         Zhao, G. and Zhao, L. and Zhou, X. and Zhu, Z. and Ziemke, J. R. 
                         and Ziese, M. and Andersen, A. and Griffin, J. and Hammer, G. and 
                         Love-Brotak, S. E. and Misch, D. J. and Riddle, D. B. and Veasey, 
                         S. W.",
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                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "State of the climate in 2018",
              journal = "Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "100",
               number = "9",
                pages = "SI-S305",
                 note = "{cited By 1}",
             abstract = "In 2018, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's 
                         atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued 
                         their increase. The annual global average carbon dioxide 
                         concentration at Earth's surface was 407.4 ± 0.1 ppm, the highest 
                         in the modern instrumental record and in ice core records dating 
                         back 800 000 years. Combined, greenhouse gases and several 
                         halogenated gases contribute just over 3 W m{\^a}2 to radiative 
                         forcing and represent a nearly 43% increase since 1990. Carbon 
                         dioxide is responsible for about 65% of this radiative forcing. 
                         With a weak La Niña in early 2018 transitioning to a weak El Niño 
                         by the year's end, the global surface (land and ocean) temperature 
                         was the fourth highest on record, with only 2015 through 2017 
                         being warmer. Several European countries reported record high 
                         annual temperatures. There were also more high, and fewer low, 
                         temperature extremes than in nearly all of the 68-year extremes 
                         record. Madagascar recorded a record daily temperature of 40.5°C 
                         in Morondava in March, while South Korea set its record high of 
                         41.0°C in August in Hongcheon. Nawabshah, Pakistan, recorded its 
                         highest temperature of 50.2°C, which may be a new daily world 
                         record for April. Globally, the annual lower troposphere 
                         temperature was third to seventh highest, depending on the dataset 
                         analyzed. The lower stratospheric temperature was approximately 
                         fifth lowest. The 2018 Arctic land surface temperature was 1.2°C 
                         above the 1981-2010 average, tying for third highest in the 
                         118-year record, following 2016 and 2017. June's Arctic snow cover 
                         extent was almost half of what it was 35 years ago. Across 
                         Greenland, however, regional summer temperatures were generally 
                         below or near average. Additionally, a satellite survey of 47 
                         glaciers in Greenland indicated a net increase in area for the 
                         first time since records began in 1999. Increasing permafrost 
                         temperatures were reported at most observation sites in the 
                         Arctic, with the overall increase of 0.1°-0.2°C between 2017 and 
                         2018 being comparable to the highest rate of warming ever observed 
                         in the region. On 17 March, Arctic sea ice extent marked the 
                         second smallest annual maximum in the 38-year record, larger than 
                         only 2017. The minimum extent in 2018 was reached on 19 September 
                         and again on 23 September, tying 2008 and 2010 for the sixth 
                         lowest extent on record. The 23 September date tied 1997 as the 
                         latest sea ice minimum date on record. First-year ice now 
                         dominates the ice cover, comprising 77% of the March 2018 ice pack 
                         compared to 55% during the 1980s. Because thinner, younger ice is 
                         more vulnerable to melting out in summer, this shift in sea ice 
                         age has contributed to the decreasing trend in minimum ice extent. 
                         Regionally, Bering Sea ice extent was at record lows for almost 
                         the entire 2017/18 ice season. For the Antarctic continent as a 
                         whole, 2018 was warmer than average. On the highest points of the 
                         Antarctic Plateau, the automatic weather station Relay (74°S) 
                         broke or tied six monthly temperature records throughout the year, 
                         with August breaking its record by nearly 8°C. However, cool 
                         conditions in the western Bellingshausen Sea and Amundsen Sea 
                         sector contributed to a low melt season overall for 2017/18. High 
                         SSTs contributed to low summer sea ice extent in the Ross and 
                         Weddell Seas in 2018, underpinning the second lowest Antarctic 
                         summer minimum sea ice extent on record. Despite conducive 
                         conditions for its formation, the ozone hole at its maximum extent 
                         in September was near the 2000-18 mean, likely due to an ongoing 
                         slow decline in stratospheric chlorine monoxide concentration. 
                         Across the oceans, globally averaged SST decreased slightly since 
                         the record El Niño year of 2016 but was still far above the 
                         climatological mean. On average, SST is increasing at a rate of 
                         0.10° ± 0.01°C decade{\^a}1 since 1950. The warming appeared 
                         largest in the tropical Indian Ocean and smallest in the North 
                         Pacific. The deeper ocean continues to warm year after year. For 
                         the seventh consecutive year, global annual mean sea level became 
                         the highest in the 26-year record, rising to 81 mm above the 1993 
                         average. As anticipated in a warming climate, the hydrological 
                         cycle over the ocean is accelerating: dry regions are becoming 
                         drier and wet regions rainier. Closer to the equator, 95 named 
                         tropical storms were observed during 2018, well above the 
                         1981-2010 average of 82. Eleven tropical cyclones reached 
                         Saffir-Simpson scale Category 5 intensity. North Atlantic Major 
                         Hurricane Michael's landfall intensity of 140 kt was the fourth 
                         strongest for any continental U.S. hurricane landfall in the 
                         168-year record. Michael caused more than 30 fatalities and 25 
                         billion (U.S. dollars) in damages. In the western North Pacific, 
                         Super Typhoon Mangkhut led to 160 fatalities and 6 billion (U.S. 
                         dollars) in damages across the Philippines, Hong Kong, Macau, 
                         mainland China, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Tropical 
                         Storm Son-Tinh was responsible for 170 fatalities in Vietnam and 
                         Laos. Nearly all the islands of Micronesia experienced at least 
                         moderate impacts from various tropical cyclones. Across land, many 
                         areas around the globe received copious precipitation, notable at 
                         different time scales. Rodrigues and R{\'e}union Island near 
                         southern Africa each reported their third wettest year on record. 
                         In Hawaii, 1262 mm precipitation at Waip{\"A} Gardens (Kauai) on 
                         14-15 April set a new U.S. record for 24-h precipitation. In 
                         Brazil, the city of Belo Horizonte received nearly 75 mm of rain 
                         in just 20 minutes, nearly half its monthly average. Globally, 
                         fire activity during 2018 was the lowest since the start of the 
                         record in 1997, with a combined burned area of about 500 million 
                         hectares. This reinforced the long-term downward trend in fire 
                         emissions driven by changes in land use in frequently burning 
                         savannas. However, wildfires burned 3.5 million hectares across 
                         the United States, well above the 2000-10 average of 2.7 million 
                         hectares. Combined, U.S. wildfire damages for the 2017 and 2018 
                         wildfire seasons exceeded 40 billion (U.S. dollars). © 2019 
                         American Meteorological Society. All rights reserved.",
                  doi = "10.1175/2019BAMSStateoftheClimate.1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2019BAMSStateoftheClimate.1",
                 issn = "0003-0007",
                label = "isi 2019-12-31 
                         
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           targetfile = "2019bamsstateoftheclimate.1.pdf",
                  url = "https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85073052511\&doi=10.1175%2f2019BAMSStateoftheClimate.1\&partnerID=40\&md5=bee594186745ad4d1e031bede909074d",
        urlaccessdate = "17 abr. 2021"
}


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