author = "Almeida, Danilo R. A. and Stark, Scott C. and Schietti, Juliana 
                         and Camargo, Jos{\'e} L. C. and Amazonas, Nino T. and Gorgens, 
                         Eric B. and Rosa, Diogo M. and Smith, Marielle N. and Valbuena, 
                         Ruben and Saleska, Scott and Andrade, Ana and Mesquita, Rita and 
                         Laurance, Susan G. and Laurance, William F. and Lovejoy, Thomas E. 
                         and Broadbent, Eben N. and Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir and Parker, 
                         Geoffreey G. and Lefsky, Michael and Silva, Carlos A. and 
                         Brancalion, Pedro H. S.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Michigan State 
                         University} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia 
                         (INPA)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)} 
                         and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal do Vale do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)} and {Michigan State 
                         University} and {University of Cambridge} and {University of 
                         Arizona} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)} and 
                         {James Cook University} and {University of Arizona} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)} and {University of 
                         FloridA} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Smithsonian Environmental Research Center} and {Colorado 
                         State University} and {NASA Goddard Space Flight Center} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)}",
                title = "Persistent effects of fragmentation on tropical rainforest canopy 
                         structure after 20 yr of isolation",
              journal = "Ecological Applications",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "29",
               number = "6",
                pages = "e01952",
                month = "Sept.",
             keywords = "airborne laser scanner, Amazon, biological dynamics of forest 
                         fragments project, edge effects, forest degradation, forest 
                         dynamics, forest succession, land use change, leaf area density, 
                         lidar, vegetation structure.",
             abstract = "Assessing the persistent impacts of fragmentation on aboveground 
                         structure of tropical forests is essential to understanding the 
                         consequences of land use change for carbon storage and other 
                         ecosystem functions. We investigated the influence of edge 
                         distance and fragment size on canopy structure, aboveground woody 
                         biomass (AGB), and AGB turnover in the Biological Dynamics of 
                         Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) in central Amazon, Brazil, after 
                         22+ yr of fragment isolation, by combining canopy variables 
                         collected with portable canopy profiling lidar and airborne laser 
                         scanning surveys with long-term forest inventories. Forest height 
                         decreased by 30% at edges of large fragments (>10 ha) and 
                         interiors of small fragments (<3 ha). In larger fragments, canopy 
                         height was reduced up to 40 m from edges. Leaf area density 
                         profiles differed near edges: the density of understory vegetation 
                         was higher and midstory vegetation lower, consistent with canopy 
                         reorganization via increased regeneration of pioneers following 
                         post-fragmentation mortality of large trees. However, canopy 
                         openness and leaf area index remained similar to control plots 
                         throughout fragments, while canopy spatial heterogeneity was 
                         generally lower at edges. AGB stocks and fluxes were positively 
                         related to canopy height and negatively related to spatial 
                         heterogeneity. Other forest structure variables typically used to 
                         assess the ecological impacts of fragmentation (basal area, 
                         density of individuals, and density of pioneer trees) were also 
                         related to lidar-derived canopy surface variables. Canopy 
                         reorganization through the replacement of edge-sensitive species 
                         by disturbance-tolerant ones may have mitigated the biomass loss 
                         effects due to fragmentation observed in the earlier years of 
                         BDFFP. Lidar technology offered novel insights and observational 
                         scales for analysis of the ecological impacts of fragmentation on 
                         forest structure and function, specifically aboveground biomass 
                  doi = "10.1002/eap.1952",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.1952",
                 issn = "1051-0761",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "almeida_persistent.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "22 abr. 2021"